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Awesome Open Source

XD Pascal for Windows

Dedicated to my father Mikhail Tereshkov, who instilled in me a taste for engineering

Summary

XD Pascal is a small embeddable self-hosting compiler for a Pascal language dialect. Any comments, suggestions, or bug reports are appreciated. Feel free to contact the author on GitHub or by e-mail [email protected]. Enjoy.

Features

  • Go-style methods and interfaces
  • Native x86 code generation (32 bit Windows executables)
  • Support for both console and GUI applications
  • No external assembler or linker needed
  • Floating-point arithmetic using the x87 FPU
  • Integration with the Raylib game development library
  • Integration with Geany IDE
  • Compiler source for Delphi 6/7, Free Pascal and XD Pascal itself (Delphi 2009+ migration is straightforward)

Detailed description

Usage

Type in the command prompt:

xdpw <file.pas>

The source file should be specified with its extension (.pas).

Language

XD Pascal is similar to Delphi 6/7 and Free Pascal with the following changes:

Enhancements

  • The compiler is self-hosting
  • The compiler is extremely compact (~10000 lines) and can be easily embedded into larger systems
  • Go-style methods and interfaces are supported

Differences

  • Strings are null-terminated arrays of characters (C style), but indexed from 1 for Pascal compatibility
  • The Text type is equivalent to file. It can be used for both text and untyped files
  • Method calls and procedural variable calls require parentheses even for empty parameter lists

Limitations

  • No classical (C++/Delphi style) object-oriented programming
  • No visual components
  • Units cannot be compiled separately
  • Only peephole optimizations
  • Extended is equivalent to Double
  • No High and Low functions for open arrays. Open array length should be explicitly passed to a subroutine
  • Statement labels cannot be numerical

Formal grammar

ProgramOrUnit = [("program" | "unit") Ident ";"] 
                ["interface"] [UsesClause] Block "." .
                
UsesClause = "uses" Ident {"," Ident} ";" .                

Block = { Declarations } (CompoundStatement | "end") .

Declarations = DeclarationSection ["implementation" DeclarationSection] .

DeclarationSection = LabelDeclarations |
                     ConstDeclarations | 
                     TypeDeclarations |
                     VarDeclarations |
                     ProcFuncDeclarations .
                     
Initializer = ConstExpression |
              StringLiteral |
              "(" Initializer {"," Initializer} ")" |
              "(" Ident ":" Initializer {";" Ident ":" Initializer} ")" |
              SetConstructor .                     
               
LabelDeclarations = "label" Ident {"," Ident} ";"               
             
ConstDeclarations = (UntypedConstDeclaration | TypedConstDeclaration)
               {";" (UntypedConstDeclaration | TypedConstDeclaration)} .

UntypedConstDeclaration = "const" Ident "=" ConstExpression .
                                 
TypedConstDeclaration = "const" Ident ":" Type "=" Initializer .

TypeDeclarations = "type" Ident "=" Type ";" {Ident "=" Type ";"} .

VarDeclarations = "var" IdentList ":" Type ["=" Initializer] ";" 
                       {IdentList ":" Type ["=" Initializer] ";"} .

ProcFuncDeclarations = ("procedure" | "function") Ident 
                       [Receiver] [FormalParams] [":" TypeIdent] 
                       [CallModifier] ";" [(Directive | Block) ";"] .

Receiver = "for" Ident ":" TypeIdent .

CallModifier = "stdcall" | "cdecl" .

Directive = "forward" | "external" ConstExpression .         

ActualParams = "(" [ (Expression | Designator) |
                {"," (Expression | Designator)} ] ")" .

FormalParams = "(" FormalParamList {";" FormalParamList} ")" .
              
FormalParamList = ["const" | "var"] IdentList [":" ["array" "of"] TypeIdent] 
                                              ["=" ConstExpression] .             

IdentList = Ident {"," Ident} .

Type = "(" Ident {"," Ident} ")" |
       "^" TypeIdent |
       ["packed"] "array" "[" Type {"," Type} "]" "of" Type |
       ["packed"] "record" Fields "end" |
       ["packed"] "interface" FixedFields "end" |
       ["packed"] "set" "of" Type |
       ["packed"] "string" [ "[" ConstExpression "]" ] |
       ["packed"] "file" ["of" Type] |
       ConstExpression ".." ConstExpression |
       ("procedure" | "function") [FormalParams] [":" TypeIdent] [CallModifier] |
       Ident .
       
Fields = FixedFields 
           ["case" [Ident ":"] Type "of" 
               ConstExpression {"," ConstExpression} ":" "(" Fields ")"
          {";" ConstExpression {"," ConstExpression} ":" "(" Fields ")"}] [";"] .       
       
FixedFields = IdentList ":" Type {";" IdentList ":" Type} .       
       
TypeIdent = "string" | "file" | Ident .       

Designator = BasicDesignator {Selector} .

BasicDesignator = Ident |
                  Ident [ActualParams] |
                  Ident "(" Expression ")" .

Selector = "^" | 
           "[" Expression {"," Expression} "]" | 
           "." Ident | 
           "(" ActualParams ")".

Statement = [Label ":"] [ (Designator | Ident) ":=" Expression | 
                          (Designator | Ident) [ActualParams] {Selector} |
                          CompoundStatement |
                          IfStatement |
                          CaseStatement |
                          WhileStatement |
                          RepeatStatement | 
                          ForStatement |
                          GotoStatement |
                          WithStatement ] .
                          
Label = Ident .                          

StatementList = Statement {";" Statement} .

CompoundStatement = "begin" StatementList "end" .

IfStatement = "if" Expression "then" Statement ["else" Statement] .

CaseStatement = "case" Expression "of" CaseElement {";" CaseElement} 
                    [";"] ["else" StatementList] [";"] "end" .
                    
WhileStatement = "while" Expression "do" Statement .

RepeatStatement = "repeat" StatementList "until" Expression .

ForStatement = "for" Ident ":=" Expression ("to" | "downto") Expression "do" Statement.

GotoStatement = "goto" Label .

WithStatement = "with" Designator {"," Designator} "do" Statement .                    
 
CaseElement = CaseLabel {"," CaseLabel} ":" Statement .

CaseLabel = ConstExpression [".." ConstExpression] .

ConstExpression = Expression .

Expression = SimpleExpression [("="|"<>"|"<"|"<="|">"|">="|"in") SimpleExpression] .

SimpleExpression = ["+"|"-"] Term {("+"|"-"|"or"|"xor") Term}.

Term = Factor {("*"|"/"|"div"|"mod"|"shl"|"shr"|"and") Factor}.

Factor = (Designator | Ident) [ActualParams] {Selector} |
         Designator |
         "@" Designator | 
         Number | 
         CharLiteral |
         StringLiteral |  
         "(" Expression ")" | 
         "not" Factor |
         SetConstructor |
         "nil" |
         Ident "(" Expression ")" {Selector} .
         
SetConstructor = "[" [Expression [".." Expression] 
                     {"," Expression [".." Expression]}] "]" .         

Ident = (Letter | "_") {Letter | "_" | Digit}.

Number = "$" HexDigit {HexDigit} | 
         Digit {Digit} ["." {Digit}] ["e" ["+" | "-"] Digit {Digit}] .

CharLiteral = "'" (Character | "'" "'") "'" | 
              "#" Number .

StringLiteral = "'" {Character | "'" "'"} "'".

Compiler

The compiler is based on a recursive descent parser. It directly builds a Windows PE executable without using any external assembler or linker.

Directives

  • $APPTYPE - Set application type. Examples: {$APPTYPE GUI}, {$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
  • $UNITPATH - Set additional unit search path. Example: {$UNITPATH ..\units\}

Optimizations

Some simple peephole optimizations are performed:

  • Push/pop elimination
  • FPU push/pop elimination
  • Local variable loading optimizations
  • Array element access optimizations
  • Record field access optimizations
  • Assignment optimizations
  • Comparison optimizations
  • Condition testing optimizations

Inlined procedures and functions

The following identifiers are implemented as part of the compiler. Their names are not reserved words and can be locally redefined by the user.

procedure Inc(var x: Integer);
procedure Dec(var x: Integer);
procedure Read([var F: file;] var x1 {; var xi});
procedure Write([var F: file;] x1[:w[:d]] {; xi[:w[:d]]});
procedure ReadLn([var F: file;] var x1 {; var xi});
procedure WriteLn([var F: file;] x1[:w[:d]] {; xi[:w[:d]]});
procedure New(var P: Pointer);
procedure Dispose(var P: Pointer);
procedure Break;
procedure Continue;
procedure Exit;
procedure Halt[(const error: Integer)];
function SizeOf(var x | T): Integer;
function Ord(x: T): Integer;
function Chr(x: Integer): Char;
function Low(var x: T | T): T;
function High(var x: T | T): T;
function Pred(x: T): T;
function Succ(x: T): T;
function Round(x: Real): Integer;
function Abs(x: T): T;
function Sqr(x: T): T;
function Sin(x: Real): Real;  
function Cos(x: Real): Real;  
function Arctan(x: Real): Real;  
function Exp(x: Real): Real;
function Ln(x: Real): Real;
function SqRt(x: Real): Real;

Standard library

System unit

function Timer: Integer;
procedure GetMem(var P: Pointer; Size: Integer);
procedure FreeMem(var P: Pointer);
procedure Randomize;
function Random: Real;
procedure Assign(var F: file; const Name: string);
procedure Rewrite(var F: file[; BlockSize: Integer]);
procedure Reset(var F: file[; BlockSize: Integer]);
procedure Close(var F: file);
procedure BlockRead(var F: file; var Buf; Len: Integer; var LenRead: Integer);
procedure BlockWrite(var F: file; var Buf; Len: Integer);
procedure Seek(var F: file; Pos: Integer);
function FileSize(var F: file): Integer;
function FilePos(var F: file): Integer;
function EOF(var F: file): Boolean;
function IOResult: Integer;
function Length(const s: string): Integer;
procedure Move(var Source; var Dest; Count: Integer);
function Copy(const S: string; Index, Count: Integer): string;
procedure FillChar(var Data; Count: Integer; Value: Char);
function ParamCount: Integer;
function ParamStr(Index: Integer): string;
procedure Val(const s: string; var Number: Real; var Code: Integer);
procedure Str(Number: Real; var s: string[; DecPlaces: Integer]);
procedure IVal(const s: string; var Number: Integer; var Code: Integer);
procedure IStr(Number: Integer; var s: string);
function UpCase(ch: Char): Char;

SysUtils unit

function IntToStr(n: Integer): string;
function StrToInt(const s: string): Integer;
function FloatToStr(x: Real): string;
function FloatToStrF(x: Real; Format: TFloatFormat; Precision, Digits: Integer): string;
function StrToFloat(const s: string): Real;
function StrToPChar(const s: string): PChar;
function PCharToStr(p: PChar): string;
function StrToPWideChar(const s: string): PWideChar;
function PWideCharToStr(p: PWideChar): string;

Samples

  • factor.pas - Integer factorization demo
  • lineq.pas - Linear equation solver. Uses gauss.pas unit. Requires eq.txt, eqerr.txt, or similar data file
  • life.pas - The Game of Life
  • sort.pas - Array sorting demo
  • fft.pas - Fast Fourier Transform demo
  • inserr.pas - Inertial navigation system error estimation demo. Uses kalman.pas unit
  • list.pas - Linked list operations demo
  • map.pas - Heterogenous list operations and Map function demo. Demonstrates XD Pascal methods and interfaces
  • gui.pas - GUI application demo. Uses windows.pas unit
  • raytracer.pas- Raytracer demo. Demonstrates XD Pascal methods and interfaces. Equivalent to raytracer.go

Known issues

Windows Defender antivirus is known to give false positive results on some programs compiled with XD Pascal.


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