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ContainerDNS

Introduction

ContainerDNS works as an internal DNS server for a Kubernetes cluster.

Components

  • containerdns: the main service to offer DNS query.
  • containerdns-kubeapi: monitor the changes of k8s services, and record the change in the etcd. It offered the original data for containerdns, meanwhille containerdns-kubeapi offers the RESTful api for users to maintain domain records.
  • containerdns-apicmd: it is a shell cmd for user to query\update domain record, it is based on containerdns-kubeapi.
  • etcd: used to store DNS information, etcd v3 api is used.

It is based on the DNS library https://github.com/miekg/dns.

Feature:

  • fully-cached DNS records
  • backend ip automatic removed when it not avaliable
  • support multiple domain suffix
  • better performance and less jitter
  • load balancing - when a domain has multiple IPs, ContainerDNS chooses an active one randoml
  • session persistence - when a domain name is accessed multiple times from the same source, the same service IP is returned.

Design Architecture

image

Setup / Install

Then get and compile ContainerDNS:

    mkdir -p $GOPATH/src/github.com/tiglabs
    cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/tiglabs
    git clone https://github.com/tiglabs/containerdns
    cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/tiglabs/containerdns
    make

Configuration

containerdns

  • config-file: read configs from the file, default "/etc/containerdns/containerdns.conf".

the config file like this:

    [Dns]
    dns-domain = containerdns.local.
    dns-addr   = 0.0.0.0:53
    nameservers = ""
    subDomainServers = ""
    cacheSize   = 100000
    ip-monitor-path = /containerdns/monitor/status/
    
    [Log]
    log-dir    = /export/log/containerdns
    log-level  = 2
    log-to-stdio = true
    
    [Etcd]
    etcd-servers = http://127.0.0.1:2379
    etcd-certfile = ""
    etcd-keyfile = ""
    etcd-cafile = ""
    
    [Fun]
    random-one = false
    hone-one  = false
    
    [Stats]
    
    statsServer = 127.0.0.1:9600
    statsServerAuthToken = @containerdns.com

containerdns-kubeapi

  • config-file: read configs from the file, default "/etc/containerdns/containerdns.conf".

the config file like this:

    [General]
    domain=containerdns.local
    host = 192.168.169.41
    etcd-server = http://127.0.0.1:2379
    ip-monitor-path = /containerdns/monitor/status
    log-dir    = /export/log/containerdns
    log-level  = 2
    log-to-stdio = false
    
    [Kube2DNS]
    kube-enable = NO
    
    [DNSApi]
    api-enable = YES
    api-address = 127.0.0.1:9003
    containerdns-auth  = 123456789
    

containerdns-scanner

  • config-file: read configs from the file, default "/etc/containerdns/containerdns-scanner.conf".

the config file like this:

    [General]
    core = 0
    enable-check = true
    hostname = hostname1
    log-dir = /export/log/containerdns
    log-level = 100
    heartbeat-interval = 30
    [Check]
    check-timeout = 2
    check-interval = 10
    scann-ports = 22, 80, 8080
    enable-icmp = true
    ping-timeout = 1000
    ping-count = 2
    [Etcd]
    etcd-machine = http://127.0.0.1:2379
    tls-key =
    tls-pem =
    ca-cert =
    status-path = /containerdns/monitor/status
    report-path = /containerdns/monitor/report
    heart-path = /containerdns/monitor/heart
    

containerdns-schedule

  • config-file: read configs from the file, default "/etc/containerdns/containerdns-schedule.conf".

the config file like this:

    [General]
    schedule-interval = 60
    agent-downtime = 60
    log-dir = /export/log/containerdns
    log-level = 100
    hostname = hostname1
    force-lock-time = 1800
    
    [Etcd]
    etcd-machine = http://127.0.0.1:2379
    status-path = /containerdns/monitor/status
    report-path = /containerdns/monitor/report
    heart-path = /containerdns/monitor/heart
    lock-path = /containerdns/monitor/lock

Testing

containerdns-kubeapi

    we use curl to test the user api.

typeA

    % curl -H "Content-Type:application/json;charset=UTF-8"  -X POST -d '{"type":"A","ips":["192.168.10.1","192.168.10.2","192.168.10.3"]}'  http://127.0.0.1:9001/containerdns/api/cctv2?token="123456789"      
    OK

typeCname

    % curl -H "Content-Type:application/json;charset=UTF-8"   -X POST -d '{"type":"cname","alias":"tv1"}' http://127.0.0.1:9001/containerdns/api/cctv2.containerdns.local?token="123456789"  
   OK

containerdns

typeA

    % nslookup qiyf-nginx-5.default.svc.containerdns.local 127.0.0.1
    Server:         127.0.0.1
    Address:        127.0.0.1#53

    Name:   qiyf-nginx-5.default.svc.containerdns.local
    Address: 192.168.19.113

    if the domain have more than one ip, containerdns will return a radom one.

    % nslookup cctv2.containerdns.local 127.0.0.1
    Server:         127.0.0.1
    Address:        127.0.0.1#53

    Name:   cctv2.containerdns.local
    Address: 192.168.10.3

typeCname

    % nslookup tv1.containerdns.local 127.0.0.1
    Server:         127.0.0.1
    Address:        127.0.0.1#53

    tv1.containerdns.local    canonical name = cctv2.containerdns.local.
    Name:   cctv2.containerdns.local
    Address: 192.168.10.3

monitor

     If the domain may have multiple ips, then dns-scanner is used to monitor the ips behand the domain. 
     When the service is not reachable, dns-scanner will change the status of the ip. And the containerdns will monitor the ip status, 
     when it comes down, containerdns will choose a good one.
     
     cctv2.containerdns.local    ips[192.168.10.1,192.168.10.2,192.168.10.3]
     
    % nslookup cctv2.containerdns.local 127.0.0.1
    Server:         127.0.0.1
    Address:        127.0.0.1#53

    Name:   cctv2.containerdns.local
    Address: 192.168.10.3
    
    % etcdctl get /containerdns/monitor/status/192.168.10.3
    {"status":"DOWN"}

    % nslookup cctv2.containerdns.local 127.0.0.1
    Server:         127.0.0.1
    Address:        127.0.0.1#53

    Name:   cctv2.containerdns.local
    Address: 192.168.10.1
    
    we query the domain cctv2.containerdns.local form containerdns we get the ip 192.168.10.3, then we shut down the service, we query the domain again
    we get the ip 192.168.10.1.

Performance Test

Testing Conditions

Physical hardware

    NIC: gigabit ethernet card
    CPUs: 32
    RAM: 32G
    OS: CentOS-7.2

Testing Software

    queryperf

Test result

image

DPDK-based Optimization

Improve ContainerDNS throughput by leveraging the DPDK technology to reach nearly 10 million QPS, https://github.com/tiglabs/containerdns/kdns and the code is also production-ready.

Reference

Reference to cite when you use ContainerDNS in a paper or technical report: "Haifeng Liu, Shugang Chen, Yongcheng Bao, Wanli Yang, and Yuan Chen, Wei Ding, Huasong Shan. A High Performance, Scalable DNS Service for Very Large Scale Container Cloud Platforms. In 19th International Middleware Conference Industry, December 10–14, 2018, Rennes, France. "


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