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PHP-LevelDB: The PHP Binding for LevelDB

Build Status: CI

LevelDB is a fast key-value storage library written at Google that provides an ordered mapping from string keys to string values.

This extension is a binding for LevelDB

Please send Feature Request or Bug report with GitHub Issue.


  • PHP >= 7
  • LevelDB >= 1.7

You can install leveldb from your os distribution:

$ sudo apt-get install libleveldb-dev

Or you could get leveldb from:

$ git clone
$ cd leveldb
$ cmake .
$ make


$ git clone
$ cd php-leveldb
$ phpize
$ ./configure --with-leveldb=/path/to/your/leveldb-1.*.*
$ make
$ make install
  1. Install from PECL

API Reference

API Reference could be found here:


Since PHP-LevelDB is a binding for LevelDB, most of the interfaces are the same as LevelDB's:

Open options

When opening a leveldb database you could specify options to override default values:

/* default open options */
$options = array(
	'create_if_missing' => true,	// if the specified database didn't exist will create a new one
	'error_if_exists'	=> false,	// if the opened database exsits will throw exception
	'paranoid_checks'	=> false,
	'block_cache_size'	=> 8 * (2 << 20),
	'write_buffer_size' => 4<<20,
	'block_size'		=> 4096,
	'max_open_files'	=> 1000,
	'block_restart_interval' => 16,
	'comparator'		=> NULL,   // any callable parameter which returns 0, -1, 1
/* default readoptions */
$readoptions = array(
	'verify_check_sum'	=> false,
	'fill_cache'		=> true,
	'snapshot'			=> null

/* default write options */
$writeoptions = array(
	'sync' => false

$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/db", $options, $readoptions, $writeoptions);

NOTE The readoptions and writeoptions will take effect when operating on the db afterward, but you could override it by specify read/write options when accessing

Using custom comparator

You could write your own comparator, the comparator can be anything callable in php the same as usort()'s compare function:, and the comparator could be:

int callback(string $a, string $b );
$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/db", array('comparator' => 'cmp'));
function cmp($a, $b)
	return strcmp($a, $b);

NOTE If you create a database with custom comparator, you can only open it again with the same comparator.

Basic operations: get(), put(), delete()

LevelDB is a key-value database, you could do those basic operations on it:


$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/leveldb-test-db");

 * Basic operate methods: set(), get(), delete()
$db->put("Key", "Value");
$db->set("Key2", "Value2"); // set() is an alias of put()

NOTE Some key-value db use set instead of put to set value, so if like set(), you could use set() to save value.

Write in a batch

If you want to do a sequence of updates and want to make it atomically, then writebatch will be your friend.

The WriteBatch holds a sequence of edits to be made to the database, and these edits within the batch are applied in order.

Apart from its atomicity benefits, WriteBatch may also be used to speed up bulk updates by placing lots of individual mutations into the same batch.


$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/leveldb-test-db");

$batch = new LevelDBWriteBatch();
$batch->put("key2", "batch value");
$batch->put("key3", "batch value");
$batch->set("key4", "a bounch of values"); // set() is an alias of put()
$batch->delete("some key");

// Write once

Iterate through db

You can iterate through the whole database by iteration:


$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/leveldb-test-db");
$it = new LevelDBIterator($db); // equals to: $it = $db->getIterator();

// Loop in iterator style
while($it->valid()) {
	var_dump($it->key() . " => " . $it->current() . "\n");

// Or loop in foreach
foreach($it as $key => $value) {
	echo "{$key} => {$value}\n";

If you want to iterate by reverse order, you could:


$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/leveldb-test-db");
$it = new LevelDBIterator($db);

for($it->last(); $it->valid(); $it->prev()) {
	echo "{$key} => {$value}\n";

 * And you could seek with: rewind(), next(), prev(), seek()

NOTE In LevelDB LevelDB::seek() will success even when the key doesn't exist. It will seek to the latest key: db-with-key('a', 'b', 'd', 'e'); $db->seek('c'); iterator will point to key 'd'


Snapshots provide consistent read-only views over the entire state of the key-value store. $read_options['snapshot'] may be non-NULL to indicate that a read should operate on a particular version of the DB state. If $read_options['snapshot'] is NULL, the read will operate on an implicit snapshot of the current state.

Snapshots are created by the LevelDB::getSnapshot() method:


$db = new LevelDB("you-db-path.db");
$db->put("key1", "value1");
$db->put("key2", "value2");

$snapshot = $db->getSnapshot();

$db->put("key3", "value3");

$read_options = array("snapshot" => $snapshot);
$db->get("key3", $read_options); // false but not "value3"
$db->get("key3"); // "value3" since not read from snapshot

$it = $db->getIterator($read_options);
foreach($it as $k => $v) {
	printf("$k => $v\n");
key1 => value1
key2 => value2

key3 was not found because we are reading from snapshot


Operations on database


Since leveldb can only accessed by a single proccess one time, you may want to close it when you aren't using it anymore.


$db = new LevelDB("/path/to/leveldb-test-db");
$it = new LevelDBIterator($db);
$it->next();				// noop you can't do that, exception thrown
$db->set("key", "value");	// you can't do this either

after database been closed, you can't do anything on it.


If you want to destroy a database, you could delete the whole database by hand: rm -rf /path/to/db or you could use LevelDB::destroy('/path/to/db').

Be careful with this.

NOTE Before you destroy a database, please make sure it was closed. or an exception will thrown. (LevelDB >= 1.7.0)


If you can't open a database, neither been locked or other error, if it's corrupted, you could use LevelDB::repair('/path/to/db') to repair it. It will try to recover as much data as possible.

Known limitations

LevelDB was designed to be thread-safe but not process-safe, so if you use php in multi-process mode (eg, php-fpm) you might not able to open the single db concurrently.

If you app is not designed to serve massive requests, you could try to catch fail to open exception and try to open it again.


Thanks Arpad for his original implementation: and his generous.


More info could be found at:


PHP-LevelDB is licensed under the PHP License

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