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nvitop

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An interactive NVIDIA-GPU process viewer, the one-stop solution for GPU process management. The full API references host at https://nvitop.readthedocs.io.

Monitor
Monitor mode of nvitop.
(TERM: GNOME Terminal / OS: Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (over SSH) / Locale: en_US.UTF-8)

Table of Contents


This project is inspired by nvidia-htop and nvtop for monitoring, and gpustat for application integration.

nvidia-htop is a tool for enriching the output of nvidia-smi. It uses regular expressions to read the output of nvidia-smi from a subprocess, which is inefficient. In the meanwhile, there is a powerful interactive GPU monitoring tool called nvtop. But nvtop is written in C, which makes it lack of portability. And what is really inconvenient is that you should compile it yourself during the installation. Therefore, I made this repo. I got a lot help when reading the source code of ranger, the console file manager. Some files in this repo are modified from ranger under the GPL-3.0 License.

If this repo is useful to you, please star it to let more people know . GitHub Repo Stars

Comparison
Compare to nvidia-smi.

Filter
Process filtering and more colorful interface.


Features

  • Informative and fancy output: show more information than nvidia-smi with colorized fancy box drawing.
  • Monitor mode: can run as a resource monitor, rather than print the results only once. (vs. nvidia-htop, limited support with command watch -c)
    • bar charts and history graphs
    • process sorting
    • process filtering
    • send signals to processes with a keystroke
    • tree-view screen for GPU processes and their parent processes
    • environment variable screen
    • help screen
    • mouse support
  • Interactive: responsive for user input (from keyboard and/or mouse) in monitor mode. (vs. gpustat & py3nvml)
  • Efficient:
    • query device status using NVML Python bindings directly, instead of parsing the output of nvidia-smi. (vs. nvidia-htop)
    • cache results with TTLCache from cachetools. (vs. gpustat)
    • display information using the curses library rather than print with ANSI escape codes. (vs. py3nvml)
    • asynchronously gather information using multi-threading and correspond to user input much faster. (vs. nvtop)
  • Portable: work on both Linux and Windows.
    • get host process information using the cross-platform library psutil instead of calling ps -p <pid> in a subprocess. (vs. nvidia-htop & py3nvml)
    • written in pure Python, easy to install with pip. (vs. nvtop)
  • Integrable: easy to integrate into other applications, more than monitoring. (vs. nvidia-htop & nvtop)

Windows
nvitop supports Windows!
(SHELL: PowerShell / TERM: Windows Terminal / OS: Windows 10 / Locale: en-US)


Requirements

  • Python 3.6+ (with pip>=10.0)
  • NVIDIA Management Library (NVML)
  • nvidia-ml-py
  • psutil
  • cachetools
  • termcolor
  • curses* (with libncursesw)

NOTE: The NVIDIA Management Library (NVML) is a C-based programmatic interface for monitoring and managing various states. The runtime version of NVML library ships with the NVIDIA display driver (available at Download Drivers | NVIDIA), or can be downloaded as part of the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit (available at CUDA Toolkit | NVIDIA Developer). The lists of OS platforms and NVIDIA-GPUs supported by the NVML library can be found in the NVML API Reference.

This repository contains a Bash script to install/upgrade the NVIDIA drivers for Ubuntu Linux. For example:

git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/XuehaiPan/nvitop.git && cd nvitop

# Change to tty3 console (required for desktop users with GUI (tty2))
# Optional for SSH users
sudo chvt 3  # or use keyboard shortcut: Ctrl-LeftAlt-F3

bash install-nvidia-driver.sh --package=nvidia-driver-470  # install the R470 driver from ppa:graphics-drivers
bash install-nvidia-driver.sh --latest                     # install the latest driver from ppa:graphics-drivers

install-nvidia-driver
NVIDIA driver installer for Ubuntu Linux.

Run bash install-nvidia-driver.sh --help for more information.

* The curses library is a built-in module of Python on Unix-like systems, and it is supported by a third-party package called windows-curses on Windows using PDCurses. Inconsistent behavior of nvitop may occur on different terminal emulators on Windows, such as missing mouse support.


Installation

It is highly recommended to install nvitop in an isolated virtual environment. Simple installation and run via pipx:

pipx run nvitop

Install from PyPI (PyPI / Status):

pip3 install --upgrade nvitop

Install from conda-forge (conda-forge):

conda install -c conda-forge nvitop

Install the latest version from GitHub (Commit Count):

pip3 install git+https://github.com/XuehaiPan/nvitop.git#egg=nvitop

Or, clone this repo and install manually:

git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/XuehaiPan/nvitop.git
cd nvitop
pip3 install .

NOTE: If you encounter the "nvitop: command not found" error after installation, please check whether you have added the Python console script path (e.g., "${HOME}/.local/bin") to your PATH environment variable. Alternatively, you can use python3 -m nvitop.

MIG Device Support
MIG Device Support.


Usage

Device and Process Status

Query the device and process status. The output is similar to nvidia-smi, but has been enriched and colorized.

# Query status of all devices
$ nvitop -1  # or use `python3 -m nvitop -1`

# Specify query devices (by integer indices)
$ nvitop -1 -o 0 1  # only show <GPU 0> and <GPU 1>

# Only show devices in `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` (by integer indices or UUID strings)
$ nvitop -1 -ov

# Only show GPU processes with the compute context (type: 'C' or 'C+G')
$ nvitop -1 -c

When the -1 switch is on, the result will be displayed ONLY ONCE (same as the default behavior of nvidia-smi). This is much faster and has lower resource usage. See Command Line Options for more command options.

There is also a CLI tool called nvisel that ships with the nvitop PyPI package. See CUDA Visible Devices Selection Tool for more information.

Resource Monitor

Run as a resource monitor:

# Monitor mode (when the display mode is omitted, `NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE` will be used)
$ nvitop  # or use `python3 -m nvitop`

# Automatically configure the display mode according to the terminal size
$ nvitop -m auto     # shortcut: `a` key

# Arbitrarily display as `full` mode
$ nvitop -m full     # shortcut: `f` key

# Arbitrarily display as `compact` mode
$ nvitop -m compact  # shortcut: `c` key

# Specify query devices (by integer indices)
$ nvitop -o 0 1  # only show <GPU 0> and <GPU 1>

# Only show devices in `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` (by integer indices or UUID strings)
$ nvitop -ov

# Only show GPU processes with the compute context (type: 'C' or 'C+G')
$ nvitop -c

# Use ASCII characters only
$ nvitop -U  # useful for terminals without Unicode support

# For light terminals
$ nvitop --light

# For spectrum-like bar charts (requires the terminal supports 256-color)
$ nvitop --colorful

You can configure the default monitor mode with the NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE environment variable (default auto if not set). See Command Line Options and Environment Variables for more command options.

In monitor mode, you can use Ctrl-c / T / K keys to interrupt / terminate / kill a process. And it's recommended to terminate or kill a process in the tree-view screen (shortcut: t). For normal users, nvitop will shallow other users' processes (in low-intensity colors). For system administrators, you can use sudo nvitop to terminate other users' processes.

Also, to enter the process metrics screen, select a process and then press the Enter / Return key . nvitop dynamically displays the process metrics with live graphs.

Process Metrics Screen
Watch metrics for a specific process (shortcut: Enter / Return).

Press h for help or q to return to the terminal. See Keybindings for Monitor Mode for more shortcuts.

Help Screen
nvitop comes with a help screen (shortcut: h).

For Docker Users

Build and run the Docker image using nvidia-docker:

git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/XuehaiPan/nvitop.git && cd nvitop  # clone this repo first
docker build --tag nvitop:latest .  # build the Docker image
docker run -it --rm --runtime=nvidia --gpus=all --pid=host nvitop:latest  # run the Docker container

The Dockerfile has a optional build argument basetag (default: 418.87.01-ubuntu18.04) for the tag of image nvidia/driver.

NOTE: Don't forget to add the --pid=host option when running the container.

For SSH Users

Run nvitop directly on the SSH session instead of a login shell:

ssh [email protected] -t nvitop                 # installed by `sudo pip3 install ...`
ssh [email protected] -t '~/.local/bin/nvitop'  # installed by `pip3 install --user ...`

NOTE: Users need to add the -t option to allocate a pseudo-terminal over the SSH session for monitor mode.

Command Line Options and Environment Variables

Type nvitop --help for more command options:

usage: nvitop [--help] [--version] [--once | --monitor [{auto,full,compact}]]
              [--interval SEC] [--ascii] [--colorful] [--force-color] [--light]
              [--gpu-util-thresh th1 th2] [--mem-util-thresh th1 th2]
              [--only idx [idx ...]] [--only-visible]
              [--compute] [--only-compute] [--graphics] [--only-graphics]
              [--user [USERNAME ...]] [--pid PID [PID ...]]

An interactive NVIDIA-GPU process viewer.

options:
  --help, -h            Show this help message and exit.
  --version, -V         Show nvitop's version number and exit.
  --once, -1            Report query data only once.
  --monitor [{auto,full,compact}], -m [{auto,full,compact}]
                        Run as a resource monitor. Continuously report query data and handle user inputs.
                        If the argument is omitted, the value from `NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE` will be used.
                        (default fallback mode: auto)
  --interval SEC        Process status update interval in seconds. (default: 2)
  --ascii, --no-unicode, -U
                        Use ASCII characters only, which is useful for terminals without Unicode support.

coloring:
  --colorful            Use gradient colors to get spectrum-like bar charts. This option is only available
                        when the terminal supports 256 colors. You may need to set environment variable
                        `TERM="xterm-256color"`. Note that the terminal multiplexer, such as `tmux`, may
                        override the `TREM` variable.
  --force-color         Force colorize even when `stdout` is not a TTY terminal.
  --light               Tweak visual results for light theme terminals in monitor mode.
                        Set variable `NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE="light"` on light terminals for convenience.
  --gpu-util-thresh th1 th2
                        Thresholds of GPU utilization to determine the load intensity.
                        Coloring rules: light < th1 % <= moderate < th2 % <= heavy.
                        ( 1 <= th1 < th2 <= 99, defaults: 10 75 )
  --mem-util-thresh th1 th2
                        Thresholds of GPU memory percent to determine the load intensity.
                        Coloring rules: light < th1 % <= moderate < th2 % <= heavy.
                        ( 1 <= th1 < th2 <= 99, defaults: 10 80 )

device filtering:
  --only idx [idx ...], -o idx [idx ...]
                        Only show the specified devices, suppress option `--only-visible`.
  --only-visible, -ov   Only show devices in the `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable.

process filtering:
  --compute, -c         Only show GPU processes with the compute context. (type: 'C' or 'C+G')
  --only-compute, -C    Only show GPU processes exactly with the compute context. (type: 'C' only)
  --graphics, -g        Only show GPU processes with the graphics context. (type: 'G' or 'C+G')
  --only-graphics, -G   Only show GPU processes exactly with the graphics context. (type: 'G' only)
  --user [USERNAME ...], -u [USERNAME ...]
                        Only show processes of the given users (or `$USER` for no argument).
  --pid PID [PID ...], -p PID [PID ...]
                        Only show processes of the given PIDs.

Spectrum-like Bar Charts
Spectrum-like bar charts (with option --colorful).

nvitop can accept the following environment variables for monitor mode:

Name Description Valid Values Default Value
NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE The default display mode (a comma-separated string) auto / full / compact
plain / colorful
dark / light
auto,plain,dark
NVITOP_GPU_UTILIZATION_THRESHOLDS Thresholds of GPU utilization 10,75 , 1,99, ... 10,75
NVITOP_MEMORY_UTILIZATION_THRESHOLDS Thresholds of GPU memory percent 10,80 , 1,99, ... 10,80
LOGLEVEL Log level for log messages DEBUG , INFO, WARNING, ... WARNING

For example:

# Replace the following export statements if you are not using Bash / Zsh
export NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE="full,light"

# Full monitor mode with light terminal tweaks
nvitop

For convenience, you can add these environment variables to your shell startup file, e.g.:

# For Bash
echo 'export NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE="full"' >> ~/.bashrc

# For Zsh
echo 'export NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE="full"' >> ~/.zshrc

# For Fish
echo 'set -gx NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE "full"' >> ~/.config/fish/config.fish

# For PowerShell
'$Env:NVITOP_MONITOR_MODE = "full"' >> $PROFILE.CurrentUserAllHosts

Keybindings for Monitor Mode

Key Binding
q Quit and return to the terminal.
h / ? Go to the help screen.
a / f / c Change the display mode to auto / full / compact.
r / <C-r> / <F5> Force refresh the window.
<Up> / <Down>
<A-k> / <A-j>
<Tab> / <S-Tab>
<Wheel>
Select and highlight a process.
<Left> / <Right>
<A-h> / <A-l>
<S-Wheel>
Scroll the host information of processes.
<Home> Select the first process.
<End> Select the last process.
<C-a>
^
Scroll left to the beginning of the process entry (i.e. beginning of line).
<C-e>
$
Scroll right to the end of the process entry (i.e. end of line).
<PageUp> / <PageDown>
<A-K> / <A-J>
[ / ]
scroll entire screen (for large amounts of processes).
<Space> Tag/untag current process.
<Esc> Clear process selection.
<C-c>
I
Send signal.SIGINT to the selected process (interrupt).
T Send signal.SIGTERM to the selected process (terminate).
K Send signal.SIGKILL to the selected process (kill).
e Show process environment.
t Toggle tree-view screen.
<Enter> Toggle tree-view screen.
, / . Select the sort column.
/ Reverse the sort order.
on (oN) Sort processes in the natural order, i.e., in ascending (descending) order of GPU.
ou (oU) Sort processes by USER in ascending (descending) order.
op (oP) Sort processes by PID in descending (ascending) order.
og (oG) Sort processes by GPU-MEM in descending (ascending) order.
os (oS) Sort processes by %SM in descending (ascending) order.
oc (oC) Sort processes by %CPU in descending (ascending) order.
om (oM) Sort processes by %MEM in descending (ascending) order.
ot (oT) Sort processes by TIME in descending (ascending) order.

HINT: It's recommended to terminate or kill a process in the tree-view screen (shortcut: t).


CUDA Visible Devices Selection Tool

Automatically select CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES from the given criteria. Example usage of the CLI tool:

# All devices but sorted
$ nvisel       # or use `python3 -m nvitop.select`
6,5,4,3,2,1,0,7,8

# A simple example to select 4 devices
$ nvisel -n 4  # or use `python3 -m nvitop.select -n 4`
6,5,4,3

# Select available devices that satisfy the given constraints
$ nvisel --min-count 2 --max-count 3 --min-free-memory 5GiB --max-gpu-utilization 60
6,5,4

# Set `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable using `nvisel`
$ export CUDA_DEVICE_ORDER="PCI_BUS_ID" CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES="$(nvisel -c 1 -f 10GiB)"
CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES="6,5,4,3,2,1,0"

# Use UUID strings in `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable
$ export CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES="$(nvisel -O uuid -c 2 -f 5000M)"
CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES="GPU-849d5a8d-610e-eeea-1fd4-81ff44a23794,GPU-18ef14e9-dec6-1d7e-1284-3010c6ce98b1,GPU-96de99c9-d68f-84c8-424c-7c75e59cc0a0,GPU-2428d171-8684-5b64-830c-435cd972ec4a,GPU-6d2a57c9-7783-44bb-9f53-13f36282830a,GPU-f8e5a624-2c7e-417c-e647-b764d26d4733,GPU-f9ca790e-683e-3d56-00ba-8f654e977e02"

# Pipe output to other shell utilities
$ nvisel --newline -O uuid -C 6 -f 8GiB
GPU-849d5a8d-610e-eeea-1fd4-81ff44a23794
GPU-18ef14e9-dec6-1d7e-1284-3010c6ce98b1
GPU-96de99c9-d68f-84c8-424c-7c75e59cc0a0
GPU-2428d171-8684-5b64-830c-435cd972ec4a
GPU-6d2a57c9-7783-44bb-9f53-13f36282830a
GPU-f8e5a624-2c7e-417c-e647-b764d26d4733
$ nvisel -0 -O uuid -c 2 -f 4GiB | xargs -0 -I {} nvidia-smi --id={} --query-gpu=index,memory.free --format=csv
CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES="GPU-849d5a8d-610e-eeea-1fd4-81ff44a23794,GPU-18ef14e9-dec6-1d7e-1284-3010c6ce98b1,GPU-96de99c9-d68f-84c8-424c-7c75e59cc0a0,GPU-2428d171-8684-5b64-830c-435cd972ec4a,GPU-6d2a57c9-7783-44bb-9f53-13f36282830a,GPU-f8e5a624-2c7e-417c-e647-b764d26d4733,GPU-f9ca790e-683e-3d56-00ba-8f654e977e02"
index, memory.free [MiB]
6, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
5, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
4, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
3, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
2, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
1, 11018 MiB
index, memory.free [MiB]
0, 11018 MiB

# Normalize the `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable (e.g. convert UUIDs to indices or get full UUIDs for an abbreviated form)
$ nvisel -i "GPU-18ef14e9,GPU-849d5a8d" -S
5,6
$ nvisel -i "GPU-18ef14e9,GPU-849d5a8d" -S -O uuid --newline
GPU-18ef14e9-dec6-1d7e-1284-3010c6ce98b1
GPU-849d5a8d-610e-eeea-1fd4-81ff44a23794

You can also integrate nvisel into your training script like this:

# Put this at the top of the Python script
import os
from nvitop import select_devices

os.environ['CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES'] = ','.join(
    select_devices(format='uuid', min_count=4, min_free_memory='8GiB')
)

Type nvisel --help for more command options:

usage: nvisel [--help] [--version]
              [--inherit [CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES]] [--account-as-free [USERNAME ...]]
              [--min-count N] [--max-count N] [--count N]
              [--min-free-memory SIZE] [--min-total-memory SIZE]
              [--max-gpu-utilization RATE] [--max-memory-utilization RATE]
              [--tolerance TOL]
              [--format FORMAT] [--sep SEP | --newline | --null] [--no-sort]

CUDA visible devices selection tool.

options:
  --help, -h            Show this help message and exit.
  --version, -V         Show nvisel's version number and exit.

constraints:
  --inherit [CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES], -i [CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES]
                        Inherit the given `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES`. If the argument is omitted, use the
                        value from the environment. This means selecting a subset of the currently
                        CUDA-visible devices.
  --account-as-free [USERNAME ...]
                        Account the used GPU memory of the given users as free memory.
                        If this option is specified but without argument, `$USER` will be used.
  --min-count N, -c N   Minimum number of devices to select. (default: 0)
                        The tool will fail (exit non-zero) if the requested resource is not available.
  --max-count N, -C N   Maximum number of devices to select. (default: all devices)
  --count N, -n N       Overriding both `--min-count N` and `--max-count N`.
  --min-free-memory SIZE, -f SIZE
                        Minimum free memory of devices to select. (example value: 4GiB)
                        If this constraint is given, check against all devices.
  --min-total-memory SIZE, -t SIZE
                        Minimum total memory of devices to select. (example value: 10GiB)
                        If this constraint is given, check against all devices.
  --max-gpu-utilization RATE, -G RATE
                        Maximum GPU utilization rate of devices to select. (example value: 30)
                        If this constraint is given, check against all devices.
  --max-memory-utilization RATE, -M RATE
                        Maximum memory bandwidth utilization rate of devices to select. (example value: 50)
                        If this constraint is given, check against all devices.
  --tolerance TOL, --tol TOL
                        The constraints tolerance (in percentage). (default: 0, i.e., strict)
                        This option can loose the constraints if the requested resource is not available.
                        For example, set `--tolerance=20` will accept a device with only 4GiB of free
                        memory when set `--min-free-memory=5GiB`.

formatting:
  --format FORMAT, -O FORMAT
                        The output format of the selected device identifiers. (default: index)
                        If any MIG device found, the output format will be fallback to `uuid`.
  --sep SEP, --separator SEP, -s SEP
                        Separator for the output. (default: ',')
  --newline             Use newline character as separator for the output, equivalent to `--sep=$'\n'`.
  --null, -0            Use null character ('\x00') as separator for the output. This option corresponds
                        to the `-0` option of `xargs`.
  --no-sort, -S         Do not sort the device by memory usage and GPU utilization.

Callback Functions for Machine Learning Frameworks

nvitop provides two builtin callbacks for TensorFlow (Keras) and PyTorch Lightning.

Callback for TensorFlow (Keras)

from tensorflow.python.keras.utils.multi_gpu_utils import multi_gpu_model
from tensorflow.python.keras.callbacks import TensorBoard
from nvitop.callbacks.keras import GpuStatsLogger
gpus = ['/gpu:0', '/gpu:1']  # or `gpus = [0, 1]` or `gpus = 2`
model = Xception(weights=None, ..)
model = multi_gpu_model(model, gpus)  # optional
model.compile(..)
tb_callback = TensorBoard(log_dir='./logs')  # or `keras.callbacks.CSVLogger`
gpu_stats = GpuStatsLogger(gpus)
model.fit(.., callbacks=[gpu_stats, tb_callback])

NOTE: Users should assign a keras.callbacks.TensorBoard callback or a keras.callbacks.CSVLogger callback to the model. And the GpuStatsLogger callback should be placed before the keras.callbacks.TensorBoard / keras.callbacks.CSVLogger callback.

Callback for PyTorch Lightning

from pytorch_lightning import Trainer
from nvitop.callbacks.pytorch_lightning import GpuStatsLogger
gpu_stats = GpuStatsLogger()
trainer = Trainer(gpus=[..], logger=True, callbacks=[gpu_stats])

NOTE: Users should assign a logger to the trainer.

TensorBoard Integration

Please refer to Resource Metric Collector for an example.


More than a Monitor

nvitop can be easily integrated into other applications. You can use nvitop to make your own monitoring tools. The full API references host at https://nvitop.readthedocs.io.

Quick Start

A minimal script to monitor the GPU devices based on APIs from nvitop:

from nvitop import Device

devices = Device.all()  # or `Device.cuda.all()` to use CUDA ordinal instead
for device in devices:
    processes = device.processes()  # type: Dict[int, GpuProcess]
    sorted_pids = sorted(processes.keys())

    print(device)
    print(f'  - Fan speed:       {device.fan_speed()}%')
    print(f'  - Temperature:     {device.temperature()}C')
    print(f'  - GPU utilization: {device.gpu_utilization()}%')
    print(f'  - Total memory:    {device.memory_total_human()}')
    print(f'  - Used memory:     {device.memory_used_human()}')
    print(f'  - Free memory:     {device.memory_free_human()}')
    print(f'  - Processes ({len(processes)}): {sorted_pids}')
    for pid in sorted_pids:
        print(f'    - {processes[pid]}')
    print('-' * 120)

Another more advanced approach with coloring:

import time

from nvitop import Device, GpuProcess, NA, colored

print(colored(time.strftime('%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y'), color='red', attrs=('bold',)))

devices = Device.cuda.all()  # or `Device.all()` to use NVML ordinal instead
separator = False
for device in devices:
    processes = device.processes()  # type: Dict[int, GpuProcess]

    print(colored(str(device), color='green', attrs=('bold',)))
    print(colored('  - Fan speed:       ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.fan_speed()}%')
    print(colored('  - Temperature:     ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.temperature()}C')
    print(colored('  - GPU utilization: ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.gpu_utilization()}%')
    print(colored('  - Total memory:    ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.memory_total_human()}')
    print(colored('  - Used memory:     ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.memory_used_human()}')
    print(colored('  - Free memory:     ', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)) + f'{device.memory_free_human()}')
    if len(processes) > 0:
        processes = GpuProcess.take_snapshots(processes.values(), failsafe=True)
        processes.sort(key=lambda process: (process.username, process.pid))

        print(colored(f'  - Processes ({len(processes)}):', color='blue', attrs=('bold',)))
        fmt = '    {pid:<5}  {username:<8} {cpu:>5}  {host_memory:>8} {time:>8}  {gpu_memory:>8}  {sm:>3}  {command:<}'.format
        print(colored(fmt(pid='PID', username='USERNAME',
                          cpu='CPU%', host_memory='HOST-MEM', time='TIME',
                          gpu_memory='GPU-MEM', sm='SM%',
                          command='COMMAND'),
                      attrs=('bold',)))
        for snapshot in processes:
            print(fmt(pid=snapshot.pid,
                      username=snapshot.username[:7] + ('+' if len(snapshot.username) > 8 else snapshot.username[7:8]),
                      cpu=snapshot.cpu_percent, host_memory=snapshot.host_memory_human,
                      time=snapshot.running_time_human,
                      gpu_memory=(snapshot.gpu_memory_human if snapshot.gpu_memory_human is not NA else 'WDDM:N/A'),
                      sm=snapshot.gpu_sm_utilization,
                      command=snapshot.command))
    else:
        print(colored('  - No Running Processes', attrs=('bold',)))

    if separator:
        print('-' * 120)
    separator = True

Demo
An example monitoring script built with APIs from nvitop.


Status Snapshot

nvitop provides a helper function take_snapshots to retrieve the status of both GPU devices and GPU processes at once. You can type help(nvitop.take_snapshots) in Python REPL for detailed documentation.

In [1]: from nvitop import take_snapshots, Device
   ...: import os
   ...: os.environ['CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES'] = '1,0'  # comma-separated integers or UUID strings

In [2]: take_snapshots()  # equivalent to `take_snapshots(Device.all())`
Out[2]:
SnapshotResult(
    devices=[
        DeviceSnapshot(
            real=Device(index=0, ...),
            ...
        ),
        ...
    ],
    gpu_processes=[
        GpuProcessSnapshot(
            real=GpuProcess(pid=xxxxxx, device=Device(index=0, ...), ...),
            ...
        ),
        ...
    ]
)

In [3]: device_snapshots, gpu_process_snapshots = take_snapshots(Device.all())  # type: Tuple[List[DeviceSnapshot], List[GpuProcessSnapshot]]

In [4]: device_snapshots, _ = take_snapshots(gpu_processes=False)  # ignore process snapshots

In [5]: take_snapshots(Device.cuda.all())  # use CUDA device enumeration
Out[5]:
SnapshotResult(
    devices=[
        CudaDeviceSnapshot(
            real=CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, nvml_index=1, ...),
            ...
        ),
        CudaDeviceSnapshot(
            real=CudaDevice(cuda_index=1, nvml_index=0, ...),
            ...
        ),
    ],
    gpu_processes=[
        GpuProcessSnapshot(
            real=GpuProcess(pid=xxxxxx, device=CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, ...), ...),
            ...
        ),
        ...
    ]
)

In [6]: take_snapshots(Device.cuda(1))  # <CUDA 1> only
Out[6]:
SnapshotResult(
    devices=[
        CudaDeviceSnapshot(
            real=CudaDevice(cuda_index=1, nvml_index=0, ...),
            ...
        )
    ],
    gpu_processes=[
        GpuProcessSnapshot(
            real=GpuProcess(pid=xxxxxx, device=CudaDevice(cuda_index=1, ...), ...),
            ...
        ),
        ...
    ]
)

Please refer to section Low-level APIs for more information.


Resource Metric Collector

ResourceMetricCollector is a class that collects resource metrics for host, GPUs and processes running on the GPUs. All metrics will be collected in an asynchronous manner. You can type help(nvitop.ResourceMetricCollector) in Python REPL for detailed documentation.

In [1]: from nvitop import ResourceMetricCollector, Device
   ...: import os
   ...: os.environ['CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES'] = '3,2,1,0'  # comma-separated integers or UUID strings

In [2]: collector = ResourceMetricCollector()                                   # log all devices and descendant processes of the current process on the GPUs
In [3]: collector = ResourceMetricCollector(root_pids={1})                      # log all devices and all GPU processes
In [4]: collector = ResourceMetricCollector(devices=Device(0), root_pids={1})   # log <GPU 0> and all GPU processes on <GPU 0>
In [5]: collector = ResourceMetricCollector(devices=Device.cuda.all())          # use the CUDA ordinal

In [6]: with collector(tag='<tag>'):
   ...:     # Do something
   ...:     collector.collect()  # -> Dict[str, float]
# key -> '<tag>/<scope>/<metric (unit)>/<mean/min/max>'
{
    '<tag>/host/cpu_percent (%)/mean': 8.967849777683456,
    '<tag>/host/cpu_percent (%)/min': 6.1,
    '<tag>/host/cpu_percent (%)/max': 28.1,
    ...,
    '<tag>/host/memory_percent (%)/mean': 21.5,
    '<tag>/host/swap_percent (%)/mean': 0.3,
    '<tag>/host/memory_used (GiB)/mean': 91.0136418208109,
    '<tag>/host/load_average (%) (1 min)/mean': 10.251427386878328,
    '<tag>/host/load_average (%) (5 min)/mean': 10.072539414569503,
    '<tag>/host/load_average (%) (15 min)/mean': 11.91126970422139,
    ...,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/memory_used (MiB)/mean': 3.875,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/memory_free (MiB)/mean': 11015.562499999998,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/memory_total (MiB)/mean': 11019.437500000002,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/memory_percent (%)/mean': 0.0,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/gpu_utilization (%)/mean': 0.0,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/memory_utilization (%)/mean': 0.0,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/fan_speed (%)/mean': 22.0,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/temperature (C)/mean': 25.0,
    '<tag>/cuda:0 (gpu:3)/power_usage (W)/mean': 19.11166264116916,
    ...,
    '<tag>/cuda:1 (gpu:2)/memory_used (MiB)/mean': 8878.875,
    ...,
    '<tag>/cuda:2 (gpu:1)/memory_used (MiB)/mean': 8182.875,
    ...,
    '<tag>/cuda:3 (gpu:0)/memory_used (MiB)/mean': 9286.875,
    ...,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/host/cpu_percent (%)/mean': 151.34342772112265,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/host/host_memory (MiB)/mean': 44749.72373447514,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/host/host_memory_percent (%)/mean': 8.675082352111717,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/host/running_time (min)': 336.23803206741576,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/cuda:1 (gpu:4)/gpu_memory (MiB)/mean': 8861.0,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/cuda:1 (gpu:4)/gpu_memory_percent (%)/mean': 80.4,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/cuda:1 (gpu:4)/gpu_memory_utilization (%)/mean': 6.711118172407917,
    '<tag>/pid:12345/cuda:1 (gpu:4)/gpu_sm_utilization (%)/mean': 48.23283397736476,
    ...,
    '<tag>/duration (s)': 7.247399162035435,
    '<tag>/timestamp': 1655909466.9981883
}

The results can be easily logged into TensorBoard or to CSV file. For example:

import os

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.utils.tensorboard import SummaryWriter

from nvitop import CudaDevice, ResourceMetricCollector
from nvitop.callbacks.tensorboard import add_scalar_dict

# Build networks and prepare datasets
...

# Logger and status collector
writer = SummaryWriter()
collector = ResourceMetricCollector(devices=CudaDevice.all(),  # log all visible CUDA devices and use the CUDA ordinal
                                    root_pids={os.getpid()},   # only log the descendant processes of the current process
                                    interval=1.0)              # snapshot interval for background daemon thread

# Start training
global_step = 0
for epoch in range(num_epoch):
    with collector(tag='train'):
        for batch in train_dataset:
            with collector(tag='batch'):
                metrics = train(net, batch)
                global_step += 1
                add_scalar_dict(writer, 'train', metrics, global_step=global_step)
                add_scalar_dict(writer, 'resources',      # tag='resources/train/batch/...'
                                collector.collect(),
                                global_step=global_step)

        add_scalar_dict(writer, 'resources',              # tag='resources/train/...'
                        collector.collect(),
                        global_step=epoch)

    with collector(tag='validate'):
        metrics = validate(net, validation_dataset)
        add_scalar_dict(writer, 'validate', metrics, global_step=epoch)
        add_scalar_dict(writer, 'resources',              # tag='resources/validate/...'
                        collector.collect(),
                        global_step=epoch)

Another example for logging to CSV file:

import datetime
import time

import pandas as pd

from nvitop import ResourceMetricCollector

collector = ResourceMetricCollector(root_pids={1}, interval=2.0)  # log all devices and all GPU processes
df = pd.DataFrame()

with collector(tag='resources'):
    for _ in range(60):
        # Do something
        time.sleep(60)

        metrics = collector.collect()
        df_metrics = pd.DataFrame.from_records(metrics, index=[len(df)])
        df = pd.concat([df, df_metrics], ignore_index=True)
        # Flush to CSV file ...

df.insert(0, 'time', df['resources/timestamp'].map(datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp))
df.to_csv('results.csv', index=False)

You can also daemonize the collector in background using collect_in_background or ResourceMetricCollector.daemonize with callback functions.

from nvitop import Device, ResourceMetricCollector, collect_in_background

logger = ...

def on_collect(metrics):  # will be called periodically
    if logger.is_closed():  # closed manually by user
        return False
    logger.log(metrics)
    return True

def on_stop(collector):  # will be called only once at stop
    if not logger.is_closed():
        logger.close()  # cleanup

# Record metrics to the logger in background every 5 seconds.
# It will collect 5-second mean/min/max for each metric.
collect_in_background(
    on_collect,
    ResourceMetricCollector(Device.cuda.all()),
    interval=5.0,
    on_stop=on_stop,
)

or simply:

ResourceMetricCollector(Device.cuda.all()).daemonize(
    on_collect,
    interval=5.0,
    on_stop=on_stop,
)

Low-level APIs

The full API references can be found at https://nvitop.readthedocs.io.

Device

The device module provides:

Device([index, uuid, bus_id])

Live class of the GPU devices, different from the device snapshots.

PhysicalDevice([index, uuid, bus_id])

Class for physical devices.

MigDevice([index, uuid, bus_id])

Class for MIG devices.

CudaDevice([cuda_index, nvml_index, uuid])

Class for devices enumerated over the CUDA ordinal.

CudaMigDevice([cuda_index, nvml_index, uuid])

Class for CUDA devices that are MIG devices.

parse_cuda_visible_devices([...])

Parses the given CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES value into a list of NVML device indices.

normalize_cuda_visible_devices([...])

Parses the given CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES value and convert it into a comma-separated string of UUIDs.

In [1]: from nvitop import (
   ...:     host,
   ...:     Device, PhysicalDevice, CudaDevice, parse_cuda_visible_devices, normalize_cuda_visible_devices
   ...:     HostProcess, GpuProcess,
   ...:     NA,
   ...: )
   ...: import os
   ...: os.environ['CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES'] = '9,8,7,6'  # comma-separated integers or UUID strings

In [2]: Device.driver_version()
Out[2]: '430.64'

In [3]: Device.cuda_driver_version()  # the maximum CUDA version supported by the driver (can be different from the CUDA runtime version)
Out[3]: '10.1'

In [4]: Device.count()
Out[4]: 10

In [5]: CudaDevice.count()  # or `Device.cuda.count()`
Out[5]: 4

In [6]: all_devices      = Device.all()                 # all devices on board (physical device)
   ...: nvidia0, nvidia1 = Device.from_indices([0, 1])  # from physical device indices
   ...: all_devices
Out[6]: [
    PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=2, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=3, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=4, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=5, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=6, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=7, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=8, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    PhysicalDevice(index=9, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB)
]

In [7]: # NOTE: The function results might be different between calls when the `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable has been modified
   ...: cuda_visible_devices = Device.from_cuda_visible_devices()  # from the `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` environment variable
   ...: cuda0, cuda1         = Device.from_cuda_indices([0, 1])    # from CUDA device indices (might be different from physical device indices if `CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES` is set)
   ...: cuda_visible_devices = CudaDevice.all()                    # shortcut to `Device.from_cuda_visible_devices()`
   ...: cuda_visible_devices = Device.cuda.all()                   # `Device.cuda` is aliased to `CudaDevice`
   ...: cuda_visible_devices
Out[7]: [
    CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, nvml_index=9, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    CudaDevice(cuda_index=1, nvml_index=8, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    CudaDevice(cuda_index=2, nvml_index=7, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    CudaDevice(cuda_index=3, nvml_index=6, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB)
]

In [8]: nvidia0 = Device(0)  # from device index (or `Device(index=0)`)
   ...: nvidia0
Out[8]: PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB)

In [9]: nvidia1 = Device(uuid='GPU-01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef')  # from UUID string (or just`Device('GPU-xxxxxxxx-...')`)
   ...: nvidia2 = Device(bus_id='00000000:06:00.0')                        # from PCI bus ID
   ...: nvidia1
Out[9]: PhysicalDevice(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB)

In [10]: cuda0 = CudaDevice(0)                        # from CUDA device index (equivalent to `CudaDevice(cuda_index=0)`)
    ...: cuda1 = CudaDevice(nvml_index=8)             # from physical device index
    ...: cuda3 = CudaDevice(uuid='GPU-xxxxxxxx-...')  # from UUID string
    ...: cuda4 = Device.cuda(4)                       # `Device.cuda` is aliased to `CudaDevice`
    ...: cuda0
Out[10]:
CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, nvml_index=9, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB)

In [11]: nvidia0.memory_used()  # in bytes
Out[11]: 9293398016

In [12]: nvidia0.memory_used_human()
Out[12]: '8862MiB'

In [13]: nvidia0.gpu_utilization()  # in percentage
Out[13]: 5

In [14]: nvidia0.processes()  # type: Dict[int, GpuProcess]
Out[14]: {
    52059: GpuProcess(pid=52059, gpu_memory=7885MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=52059, name='ipython3', status='sleeping', started='14:31:22')),
    53002: GpuProcess(pid=53002, gpu_memory=967MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=53002, name='python', status='running', started='14:31:59'))
}

In [15]: nvidia1_snapshot = nvidia1.as_snapshot()
    ...: nvidia1_snapshot
Out[15]: PhysicalDeviceSnapshot(
    real=PhysicalDevice(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    bus_id='00000000:05:00.0',
    compute_mode='Default',
    clock_infos=ClockInfos(graphics=1815, sm=1815, memory=6800, video=1680),  # in MHz
    clock_speed_infos=ClockSpeedInfos(current=ClockInfos(graphics=1815, sm=1815, memory=6800, video=1680), max=ClockInfos(graphics=2100, sm=2100, memory=7000, video=1950)),  # in MHz
    current_driver_model='N/A',
    decoder_utilization=0,              # in percentage
    display_active='Disabled',
    display_mode='Disabled',
    encoder_utilization=0,              # in percentage
    fan_speed=22,                       # in percentage
    gpu_utilization=17,                 # in percentage (NOTE: this is the utilization rate of SMs, i.e. GPU percent)
    index=1,
    max_clock_infos=ClockInfos(graphics=2100, sm=2100, memory=7000, video=1950),  # in MHz
    memory_clock=6800,                  # in MHz
    memory_free=10462232576,            # in bytes
    memory_free_human='9977MiB',
    memory_info=MemoryInfo(total=11554717696, free=10462232576, used=1092485120)  # in bytes
    memory_percent=9.5,                 # in percentage (NOTE: this is the percentage of used GPU memory)
    memory_total=11554717696,           # in bytes
    memory_total_human='11019MiB',
    memory_usage='1041MiB / 11019MiB',
    memory_used=1092485120,             # in bytes
    memory_used_human='1041MiB',
    memory_utilization=7,               # in percentage (NOTE: this is the utilization rate of GPU memory bandwidth)
    mig_mode='N/A',
    name='GeForce RTX 2080 Ti',
    performance_state='P2',
    persistence_mode='Disabled',
    power_limit=250000,                 # in milliwatts (mW)
    power_status='66W / 250W',          # in watts (W)
    power_usage=66051,                  # in milliwatts (mW)
    sm_clock=1815,                      # in MHz
    temperature=39,                     # in Celsius
    total_volatile_uncorrected_ecc_errors='N/A',
    utilization_rates=UtilizationRates(gpu=17, memory=7, encoder=0, decoder=0),  # in percentage
    uuid='GPU-01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef'
)

In [16]: nvidia1_snapshot.memory_percent  # snapshot uses properties instead of function calls
Out[16]: 9.5

In [17]: nvidia1_snapshot['memory_info']  # snapshot also supports `__getitem__` by string
Out[17]: MemoryInfo(total=11554717696, free=10462232576, used=1092485120)

In [18]: nvidia1_snapshot.bar1_memory_info  # snapshot will automatically retrieve not presented attributes from `real`
Out[18]: MemoryInfo(total=268435456, free=257622016, used=10813440)

NOTE: Some entry values may be 'N/A' (type: NaType, subclass of str) when the corresponding resources are not applicable. The NA value supports arithmetic operations. It acts like math.nan: float.

>>> from nvitop import NA
>>> NA
'N/A'

>>> 'memory usage: {}'.format(NA)  # NA is an instance of `str`
'memory usage: N/A'
>>> NA.lower()                     # NA is an instance of `str`
'n/a'
>>> NA.ljust(5)                    # NA is an instance of `str`
'N/A  '
>>> NA + 'str'                     # string contamination if the operand is a string
'N/Astr'

>>> float(NA)                      # explicit conversion to float (`math.nan`)
nan
>>> NA + 1                         # auto-casting to float if the operand is a number
nan
>>> NA * 1024                      # auto-casting to float if the operand is a number
nan
>>> NA / (1024 * 1024)             # auto-casting to float if the operand is a number
nan

You can use entry != 'N/A' conditions to avoid exceptions. It's safe to use float(entry) for numbers while NaType will be converted to math.nan. For example:

memory_used: Union[int, NaType] = device.memory_used()            # memory usage in bytes or `'N/A'`
memory_used_in_mib: float       = float(memory_used) / (1 << 20)  # memory usage in Mebibytes (MiB) or `math.nan`

It's safe to compare NaType with numbers, but NaType is always larger than any number:

devices_by_used_memory = sorted(Device.all(), key=Device.memory_used, reverse=True)  # it's safe to compare `'N/A'` with numbers
devices_by_free_memory = sorted(Device.all(), key=Device.memory_free, reverse=True)  # please add `memory_free != 'N/A'` checks if sort in descending order here

See nvitop.NaType documentation for more details.

Process

The process module provides:

HostProcess([pid])

Represents an OS process with the given PID.

GpuProcess(pid, device[, gpu_memory, ...])

Represents a process with the given PID running on the given GPU device.

command_join(cmdline)

Returns a shell-escaped string from command line arguments.

In [19]: processes = nvidia1.processes()  # type: Dict[int, GpuProcess]
    ...: processes
Out[19]: {
    23266: GpuProcess(pid=23266, gpu_memory=1031MiB, type=C, device=Device(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=23266, name='python3', status='running', started='2021-05-10 21:02:40'))
}

In [20]: process = processes[23266]
    ...: process
Out[20]: GpuProcess(pid=23266, gpu_memory=1031MiB, type=C, device=Device(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=23266, name='python3', status='running', started='2021-05-10 21:02:40'))

In [21]: process.status()  # GpuProcess will automatically inherit attributes from GpuProcess.host
Out[21]: 'running'

In [22]: process.cmdline()  # type: List[str]
Out[22]: ['python3', 'rllib_train.py']

In [23]: process.command()  # type: str
Out[23]: 'python3 rllib_train.py'

In [24]: process.cwd()  # GpuProcess will automatically inherit attributes from GpuProcess.host
Out[24]: '/home/xxxxxx/Projects/xxxxxx'

In [25]: process.gpu_memory_human()
Out[25]: '1031MiB'

In [26]: process.as_snapshot()
Out[26]: GpuProcessSnapshot(
    real=GpuProcess(pid=23266, gpu_memory=1031MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=23266, name='python3', status='running', started='2021-05-10 21:02:40')),
    cmdline=['python3', 'rllib_train.py'],
    command='python3 rllib_train.py',
    compute_instance_id='N/A',
    cpu_percent=98.5,                       # in percentage
    device=PhysicalDevice(index=1, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB),
    gpu_encoder_utilization=0,              # in percentage
    gpu_decoder_utilization=0,              # in percentage
    gpu_instance_id='N/A',
    gpu_memory=1081081856,                  # in bytes
    gpu_memory_human='1031MiB',
    gpu_memory_percent=9.4,                 # in percentage (NOTE: this is the percentage of used GPU memory)
    gpu_memory_utilization=5,               # in percentage (NOTE: this is the utilization rate of GPU memory bandwidth)
    gpu_sm_utilization=0,                   # in percentage (NOTE: this is the utilization rate of SMs, i.e. GPU percent)
    host=HostProcessSnapshot(
        real=HostProcess(pid=23266, name='python3', status='running', started='2021-05-10 21:02:40'),
        cmdline=['python3', 'rllib_train.py'],
        command='python3 rllib_train.py',
        cpu_percent=98.5,                   # in percentage
        host_memory=9113627439,             # in bytes
        host_memory_human='8691MiB',
        is_running=True,
        memory_percent=1.6849018430285683,  # in percentage
        name='python3',
        running_time=datetime.timedelta(days=1, seconds=80013, microseconds=470024),
        running_time_human='46:13:33',
        running_time_in_seconds=166413.470024,
        status='running',
        username='panxuehai'
    ),
    host_memory=9113627439,                 # in bytes
    host_memory_human='8691MiB',
    is_running=True,
    memory_percent=1.6849018430285683,      # in percentage (NOTE: this is the percentage of used host memory)
    name='python3',
    pid=23266,
    running_time=datetime.timedelta(days=1, seconds=80013, microseconds=470024),
    running_time_human='46:13:33',
    running_time_in_seconds=166413.470024,
    status='running',
    type='C',                               # 'C' for Compute / 'G' for Graphics / 'C+G' for Both
    username='panxuehai'
)

In [27]: process.uids()  # GpuProcess will automatically inherit attributes from GpuProcess.host
Out[27]: puids(real=1001, effective=1001, saved=1001)

In [28]: process.kill()  # GpuProcess will automatically inherit attributes from GpuProcess.host

In [29]: list(map(Device.processes, all_devices))  # all processes
Out[29]: [
    {
        52059: GpuProcess(pid=52059, gpu_memory=7885MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=52059, name='ipython3', status='sleeping', started='14:31:22')),
        53002: GpuProcess(pid=53002, gpu_memory=967MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=0, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=53002, name='python', status='running', started='14:31:59'))
    },
    {},
    {},
    {},
    {},
    {},
    {},
    {},
    {
        84748: GpuProcess(pid=84748, gpu_memory=8975MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=8, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=84748, name='python', status='running', started='11:13:38'))
    },
    {
        84748: GpuProcess(pid=84748, gpu_memory=8341MiB, type=C, device=PhysicalDevice(index=9, name="GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=84748, name='python', status='running', started='11:13:38'))
    }
]

In [30]: this = HostProcess(os.getpid())
    ...: this
Out[30]: HostProcess(pid=35783, name='python', status='running', started='19:19:00')

In [31]: this.cmdline()  # type: List[str]
Out[31]: ['python', '-c', 'import IPython; IPython.terminal.ipapp.launch_new_instance()']

In [32]: this.command()  # not simply `' '.join(cmdline)` but quotes are added
Out[32]: 'python -c "import IPython; IPython.terminal.ipapp.launch_new_instance()"'

In [33]: this.memory_info()
Out[33]: pmem(rss=83988480, vms=343543808, shared=12079104, text=8192, lib=0, data=297435136, dirty=0)

In [34]: import cupy as cp
    ...: x = cp.zeros((10000, 1000))
    ...: this = GpuProcess(os.getpid(), cuda0)  # construct from `GpuProcess(pid, device)` explicitly rather than calling `device.processes()`
    ...: this
Out[34]: GpuProcess(pid=35783, gpu_memory=N/A, type=N/A, device=CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, nvml_index=9, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=35783, name='python', status='running', started='19:19:00'))

In [35]: this.update_gpu_status()  # update used GPU memory from new driver queries
Out[35]: 267386880

In [36]: this
Out[36]: GpuProcess(pid=35783, gpu_memory=255MiB, type=C, device=CudaDevice(cuda_index=0, nvml_index=9, name="NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti", total_memory=11019MiB), host=HostProcess(pid=35783, name='python', status='running', started='19:19:00'))

In [37]: id(this) == id(GpuProcess(os.getpid(), cuda0))  # IMPORTANT: the instance will be reused while the process is running
Out[37]: True
Host (inherited from psutil)
In [38]: host.cpu_count()
Out[38]: 88

In [39]: host.cpu_percent()
Out[39]: 18.5

In [40]: host.cpu_times()
Out[40]: scputimes(user=2346377.62, nice=53321.44, system=579177.52, idle=10323719.85, iowait=28750.22, irq=0.0, softirq=11566.87, steal=0.0, guest=0.0, guest_nice=0.0)

In [41]: host.load_average()
Out[41]: (14.88, 17.8, 19.91)

In [42]: host.virtual_memory()
Out[42]: svmem(total=270352478208, available=192275968000, percent=28.9, used=53350518784, free=88924037120, active=125081112576, inactive=44803993600, buffers=37006450688, cached=91071471616, shared=23820632064, slab=8200687616)

In [43]: host.memory_percent()
Out[43]: 28.9

In [44]: host.swap_memory()
Out[44]: sswap(total=65534947328, used=475136, free=65534472192, percent=0.0, sin=2404139008, sout=4259434496)

In [45]: host.swap_percent()
Out[45]: 0.0

Screenshots

Screen Recording

Example output of nvitop -1:

Screenshot

Example output of nvitop:

Full Compact
Full Compact

Tree-view screen (shortcut: t) for GPU processes and their ancestors:

Tree-view

NOTE: The process tree is built in backward (recursively back to the tree root). Only GPU processes along with their children and ancestors (parents and grandparents ...) will be shown. Not all running processes will be displayed.

Environment variable screen (shortcut: e):

Environment Screen


License

The source code of nvitop is dual-licensed by the Apache License, Version 2.0 (Apache-2.0) and GNU General Public License, Version 3 (GPL-3.0) . The nvitop CLI is released under the GPL-3.0 license while the remaining part of nvitop is released under the Apache-2.0 license. The license files can be found at LICENSE (Apache-2.0) and COPYING (GPL-3.0).

The source code is organized as:

nvitop           (GPL-3.0)
 __init__.py  (Apache-2.0)
 version.py   (Apache-2.0)
 core         (Apache-2.0)
    LICENSE  (Apache-2.0)
    *        (Apache-2.0)
 callbacks    (Apache-2.0)
    LICENSE  (Apache-2.0)
    *        (Apache-2.0)
 select.py    (Apache-2.0)
 __main__.py  (GPL-3.0)
 cli.py       (GPL-3.0)
 gui          (GPL-3.0)
     COPYING  (GPL-3.0)
     *        (GPL-3.0)

Copyright Notice

Please feel free to use nvitop as a dependency for your own projects. The following Python import statements are permitted:

import nvitop
import nvitop as alias
from nvitop import *
from nvitop import Device, ResourceMetricCollector

The public APIs from nvitop are released under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (Apache-2.0). The original license files can be found at LICENSE, nvitop/core/LICENSE, and nvitop/callbacks/LICENSE.

The CLI of nvitop is released under the GNU General Public License, Version 3 (GPL-3.0). The original license files can be found at COPYING and nvitop/gui/COPYING. If you dynamically load the source code of nvitop's CLI or GUI:

from nvitop import cli
from nvitop import gui
import nvitop.cli
import nvitop.gui

your source code should also be released under the GPL-3.0 License.

If you want to add or modify some features of nvitop's CLI, or copy some source code of nvitop's CLI into your own code, the source code should also be released under the GPL-3.0 License (as nvitop contains some modified source code from ranger under the GPL-3.0 License).

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