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immudb is a key-value database with built-in cryptographic proof and verification. It can track changes in sensitive data and the integrity of the history will be protected by the clients, without the need to trust the server.

Traditional database transactions and logs are hard to scale and are mutable, so there is no way to know for sure if your data has been compromised. immudb is immutable. You can add new versions of existing records, but never change or delete records. This lets you store critical data without fear of it being changed silently.

Data stored in immudb is cryptographically coherent and verifiable, just like blockchains, but without all the complexity. Unlike blockchains, immudb can handle millions of transactions per second, and can be used both as a lightweight service or embedded in your application as a library.

Companies use immudb to protect credit card transactions and to secure processes by storing digital certificates and checksums.

Tech specs

Topic Description
DB Model Key-Value store with 3D access (key-value-index)
Data scheme schema-free
Implementation design LSM tree with value log and parallel Merkle Tree
Implementation language Go
Server OS(s) BSD, Linux, OS X, Solaris, Windows and more
Embeddable Yes, optionally
Server APIs gRPC
Partition methods Sharding
Consistency concepts Eventual Consistency Immediate Consistency
Transaction concepts ACID with Snapshot Isolation (SSI)
Durability Yes
Snapshots Yes
High Read throughput Yes
High Write throughput Yes
Optimized for SSD Yes


Getting immudb running

You may download the immudb binary from the latest releases on Github. Once you have downloaded immudb, rename it to immudb, make sure to mark it as executable, then run it. The following example shows how to obtain v0.9.2 for linux amd64:

mv immudb-v0.9.2-linux-amd64 immudb
chmod +x immudb

# run immudb in the foreground to see all output

# or run immudb in the background
./immudb -d

Alternatively, you may use Docker to run immudb in a ready-to-use container:

docker run -d --net host -it --rm --name immudb codenotary/immudb:latest

If you are running the Docker image without host networking, make sure to expose ports 3322 and 9497.

Connecting with immuclient

You may download the immuclient binary from the latest releases on Github. Once you have downloaded immuclient, rename it to immuclient, make sure to mark it as executable, then run it. The following example shows how to obtain v0.9.2 for linux amd64:

mv immuclient-v0.9.2-linux-amd64 immuclient
chmod +x immuclient

# start the interactive shell

# or use commands directly
./immuclient help

Alternatively, you may use Docker to run immuclient in a ready-to-use container:

docker run -it --rm --net host --name immuclient codenotary/immuclient:latest

Using immudb

Lot of useful documentation and step by step guides can be found at

Real world examples

We already learned about the following use cases from users:

  • use immudb to immutably store every update to sensitive database fields (credit card or bank account data) of an existing application database
  • store CI/CD recipes in immudb to protect build and deployment pipelines
  • store public certificates in immudb
  • use immudb as an additional hash storage for digital objects checksums
  • store log streams (i. e. audit logs) tamperproof

How to integrate immudb in your application

We have SDKs available for the following programming languages:

  1. Java immudb4j
  2. Golang (client package in the immudb repo)
  3. .net immudb4dotnet
  4. Python immudb-py
  5. Node.js immudb-node

To get started with development, there is a quickstart in our documentation: or pick a basic running sample from immudb-client-examples.

Our immudb Playground provides a guided environment to learn the Python SDK.

We've developed a "language-agnostic SDK" which exposes a REST API for easy consumption by any application. immugw may be a convenient tool when SDKs are not available for the programming language you're using, for experimentation, or just because you prefer your app only uses REST endpoints.

Performance figures

immudb can handle millions of writes per second. The following table shows performance of the embedded store inserting 1M entries on a 4-core E3-1275v6 CPU and SSD disk with 20-100 parallel workers:

Entries Workers Batch Batches time (s) Entries/s
1M 20 1000 50 1.061 1.2M /s
1M 50 1000 20 0.543 1.8M /s
1M 100 1000 10 0.615 1.6M /s

You can generate your own benchmarks using the stress_tool under embedded/tools.


The following topics are important to us and are planned or already being worked on:

  • Relational model support (including SQL)
    • psql wire protocol compatibility (being able to connect with compatible clients)
    • Travel in time
  • Embedded web console
  • Replication (Follower)
  • Other storage backends (eg. Cloud)
  • Hot backups
  • Data pruning
  • Compression
  • Improving SDK API and errors


We welcome contributions. Feel free to join the team!

Learn how to build immudb components in both binary and Docker image form.

To report bugs or get help, use GitHub's issues.

immudb is Apache v2.0 License.

immudb re-distributes other open-source tools and libraries - Acknowledgements.

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go (14,920
database (1,217
performance (607
key-value (84
verification (81
immutable (79
compliance (58
gdpr (53
verify (30
merkle-tree (24
immutability (23
pci-dss (17