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go-zero

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go-zero - A web & rpc framework written in Go. | Product Hunt

Important!

To upgrade from versions eariler than v1.3.0, run the following commands.

go install github.com/zeromicro/go-zero/tools/[email protected]

goctl migrate verbose version v1.4.0

0. what is go-zero

go-zero (listed in CNCF Landscape: https://landscape.cncf.io/?selected=go-zero) is a web and rpc framework with lots of builtin engineering practices. Its born to ensure the stability of the busy services with resilience design and has been serving sites with tens of millions of users for years.

go-zero contains simple API description syntax and code generation tool called goctl. You can generate Go, iOS, Android, Kotlin, Dart, TypeScript, JavaScript from .api files with goctl.

Advantages of go-zero:

  • improve the stability of the services with tens of millions of daily active users
  • builtin chained timeout control, concurrency control, rate limit, adaptive circuit breaker, adaptive load shedding, even no configuration needed
  • builtin middlewares also can be integrated into your frameworks
  • simple API syntax, one command to generate a couple of different languages
  • auto validate the request parameters from clients
  • plenty of builtin microservice management and concurrent toolkits
Architecture

1. Backgrounds of go-zero

At the beginning of 2018, we decided to re-design our system, from monolithic architecture with Java+MongoDB to microservice architecture. After research and comparison, we chose to:

  • Golang based
    • great performance
    • simple syntax
    • proven engineering efficiency
    • extreme deployment experience
    • less server resource consumption
  • Self-designed microservice architecture
    • I have rich experience in designing microservice architectures
    • easy to locate the problems
    • easy to extend the features

2. Design considerations on go-zero

By designing the microservice architecture, we expected to ensure stability, as well as productivity. And from just the beginning, we have the following design principles:

  • keep it simple
  • high availability
  • stable on high concurrency
  • easy to extend
  • resilience design, failure-oriented programming
  • try best to be friendly to the business logic development, encapsulate the complexity
  • one thing, one way

After almost half a year, we finished the transfer from a monolithic system to microservice system and deployed on August 2018. The new system guaranteed business growth and system stability.

3. The implementation and features of go-zero

go-zero is a web and rpc framework that integrates lots of engineering practices. The features are mainly listed below:

  • powerful tool included, less code to write
  • simple interfaces
  • fully compatible with net/http
  • middlewares are supported, easy to extend
  • high performance
  • failure-oriented programming, resilience design
  • builtin service discovery, load balancing
  • builtin concurrency control, adaptive circuit breaker, adaptive load shedding, auto-trigger, auto recover
  • auto validation of API request parameters
  • chained timeout control
  • auto management of data caching
  • call tracing, metrics, and monitoring
  • high concurrency protected

As below, go-zero protects the system with a couple of layers and mechanisms:

Resilience

4. The simplified architecture that we use with go-zero

image

5. Installation

Run the following command under your project:

go get -u github.com/zeromicro/go-zero

6. Quick Start

  1. full examples can be checked out from below:

    Rapid development of microservice systems

    Rapid development of microservice systems - multiple RPCs

  2. install goctl

    goctlcan be read as go control. goctl means not to be controlled by code, instead, we control it. The inside go is not golang. At the very beginning, I was expecting it to help us improve productivity, and make our lives easier.

    # for Go 1.15 and earlier
    GO111MODULE=on go get -u github.com/zeromicro/go-zero/tools/[email protected]
    
    # for Go 1.16 and later
    go install github.com/zeromicro/go-zero/tools/[email protected]
    
    # For Mac
    brew install goctl
    
    # docker for amd64 architecture
    docker pull kevinwan/goctl
    # run goctl like
    docker run --rm -it -v `pwd`:/app kevinwan/goctl goctl --help
    
    # docker for arm64 (M1) architecture
    docker pull kevinwan/goctl:latest-arm64
    # run goctl like
    docker run --rm -it -v `pwd`:/app kevinwan/goctl:latest-arm64 goctl --help
    

    make sure goctl is executable.

  3. create the API file, like greet.api, you can install the plugin of goctl in vs code, api syntax is supported.

    type (
      Request {
        Name string `path:"name,options=you|me"` // parameters are auto validated
      }
    
      Response {
        Message string `json:"message"`
      }
    )
    
    service greet-api {
      @handler GreetHandler
      get /greet/from/:name(Request) returns (Response)
    }
    

    the .api files also can be generated by goctl, like below:

    goctl api -o greet.api
    
  4. generate the go server-side code

    goctl api go -api greet.api -dir greet
    

    the generated files look like:

     greet
      etc
       greet-api.yaml        // configuration file
      greet.go                  // main file
      internal
          config
           config.go         // configuration definition
          handler
           greethandler.go   // get/put/post/delete routes are defined here
           routes.go         // routes list
          logic
           greetlogic.go     // request logic can be written here
          svc
           servicecontext.go // service context, mysql/redis can be passed in here
          types
              types.go          // request/response defined here
     greet.api                     // api description file
    

    the generated code can be run directly:

    cd greet
    go mod init
    go mod tidy
    go run greet.go -f etc/greet-api.yaml
    

    by default, its listening on port 8888, while it can be changed in the configuration file.

    you can check it by curl:

    curl -i http://localhost:8888/greet/from/you
    

    the response looks like below:

    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Date: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 15:32:35 GMT
    Content-Length: 0
    
  5. Write the business logic code

    • the dependencies can be passed into the logic within servicecontext.go, like mysql, reds, etc.
    • add the logic code in a logic package according to .api file
  6. Generate code like Java, TypeScript, Dart, JavaScript, etc. just from the api file

    goctl api java -api greet.api -dir greet
    goctl api dart -api greet.api -dir greet
    ...
    

7. Benchmark

benchmark

Checkout the test code

8. Documents

9. Chat group

Join the chat via https://discord.gg/4JQvC5A4Fe

10. Cloud Native Landscape

   

go-zero enlisted in the CNCF Cloud Native Landscape.

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