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Supabase Realtime

Listens to changes in a PostgreSQL Database and broadcasts them over websockets.
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Supabase Realtime Demo

Hiring

Supabase is hiring Elixir experts to work full-time on this repo. If you have the experience, apply online.

Project Status

  • [x] Alpha: Under heavy development
  • [x] Public Alpha: Ready for use. But go easy on us, there may be a few kinks.
  • [x] Public Beta: Stable enough for most non-enterprise use-cases
  • [ ] Public: Production-ready

This repo is still under heavy development and the documentation is constantly evolving. You're welcome to try it, but expect some breaking changes. Watch "releases" of this repo to get notified of major updates. And give us a star if you like it!

Watch this repo

Introduction

What is this?

This is a server built with Elixir using the Phoenix Framework that allows you to listen to changes in your PostgreSQL database via logical replication and then broadcast those changes via websockets.

Realtime server works by:

  1. listening to PostgreSQL's replication functionality (using PostgreSQL's logical decoding)
  2. converting the byte stream into JSON
  3. broadcasting over websockets

Why not just use PostgreSQL's NOTIFY?

A few reasons:

  1. You don't have to set up triggers on every table.
  2. NOTIFY has a payload limit of 8000 bytes and will fail for anything larger. The usual solution is to send an ID and then fetch the record, but that's heavy on the database.
  3. Realtime server consumes two connections to the database, then you can connect many clients to this server. Easier on your database, and to scale up you just add additional Realtime servers.

What are the benefits?

  1. The beauty of listening to the replication functionality is that you can make changes to your database from anywhere - your API, directly in the DB, via a console, etc. - and you will still receive the changes via websockets.
  2. Decoupling. For example, if you want to send a new slack message every time someone makes a new purchase you might build that functionality directly into your API. This allows you to decouple your async functionality from your API.
  3. This is built with Phoenix, an extremely scalable Elixir framework.

Does this server guarentee delivery of every data change?

Not yet! Due to the following limitations:

  1. Postgres database runs out of disk space due to Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) buildup, which can crash the database and prevent Realtime server from streaming replication and broadcasting changes.
  2. Realtime server can crash due to a larger replication lag than available memory, forcing the creation of a new replication slot and resetting streaming replication to read from the latest WAL data.
  3. When Realtime server falls too far behind for any reason, for example disconnecting from database as WAL continues to build up, then database can delete WAL segments the server still needs to read from, for example after reconnecting.

Quick start

We have set up some simple examples that show how to use this server:

Client libraries

Event Filters with Examples

Prerequisites for running event filter examples

import { RealtimeClient } = '@supabase/realtime-js'

var socket = new RealtimeClient(process.env.REALTIME_URL || 'ws://localhost:4000/socket')
socket.connect()

Supported event types

  • *
  • INSERT
  • UPDATE
  • DELETE

Supported event filters

  • Listen to all database changes
    • Channel format: realtime:*
// Listen to all deletes in database
var allChanges = socket
  .channel('realtime:*')
  .join()
  .on('DELETE', payload => { console.log('Delete received!', payload) })
  • Listen to a specific schema's changes
    • Channel format: realtime:schema
// Listen to all inserts from the 'public' schema
var allPublicInsertChanges = socket
  .channel('realtime:public')
  .join()
  .on('INSERT', payload => { console.log('Insert received!', payload) })
  • Listen to a specific table's changes
    • Channel format: realtime:schema:table
// Listen to all updates on the 'users' table in the 'public' schema
var allUsersUpdateChanges = socket
  .channel('realtime:public:users')
  .join()
  .on('UPDATE', payload => { console.log('Update received!', payload) })
  • Listen to a specific column's value changes
    • Channel format: realtime:schema:table:column=eq.value
// Listen to all changes to user ID 99
var allUserId99Changes = socket
  .channel('realtime:public:users:id=eq.99')
  .join()
  .on('*', payload => { console.log('Change received!', payload) })

Server

Database set up

The following are requirements for your database:

  1. It must be Postgres 10+ as it uses logical replication
  2. Set up your DB for replication
    1. It must have the wal_level set to logical. You can check this by running SHOW wal_level;. To set the wal_level, you can call ALTER SYSTEM SET wal_level = logical;
    2. You must set max_replication_slots to at least 1: ALTER SYSTEM SET max_replication_slots = 5;
  3. Create a PUBLICATION for this server to listen to: CREATE PUBLICATION supabase_realtime FOR ALL TABLES;
  4. [OPTIONAL] If you want to receive the old record (previous values) on UPDATE and DELETE, you can set the REPLICA IDENTITY to FULL like this: ALTER TABLE your_table REPLICA IDENTITY FULL;. This has to be set for each table unfortunately.

Server set up

The easiest way to get started is just to use our docker image. We will add more deployment methods soon.

# Update the environment variables to point to your own database
docker run                                  \
  -e DB_HOST='docker.for.mac.host.internal' \
  -e DB_NAME='postgres'                     \
  -e DB_USER='postgres'                     \
  -e DB_PASSWORD='postgres'                 \
  -e DB_PORT=5432                           \
  -e PORT=4000                              \
  -e JWT_SECRET='SOMETHING_SUPER_SECRET'    \
  -p 4000:4000                              \
  supabase/realtime

ALL OPTIONS

DB_HOST                 # {string}      Database host URL
DB_NAME                 # {string}      Postgres database name
DB_USER                 # {string}      Database user
DB_PASSWORD             # {string}      Database password
DB_PORT                 # {number}      Database port
DB_IP_VERSION           # {string}      (options: 'IPv4'/'IPv6') Connect to database via either IPv4 or IPv6. Disregarded if database host is an IP address (e.g. '127.0.0.1') and recommended if database host is a name (e.g. 'db.abcd.supabase.co') to prevent potential non-existent domain (NXDOMAIN) errors.
SLOT_NAME               # {string}      A unique name for Postgres to track where this server has "listened until". If the server dies, it can pick up from the last position. This should be lowercase.
PORT                    # {number}      Port which you can connect your client/listeners
SECURE_CHANNELS         # {string}      (options: 'true'/'false') Enable/Disable channels authorization via JWT verification.
JWT_SECRET              # {string}      HS algorithm octet key (e.g. "95x0oR8jq9unl9pOIx"). Only required if SECURE_CHANNELS is set to true.
JWT_CLAIM_VALIDATORS    # {string}      Expected claim key/value pairs compared to JWT claims via equality checks in order to validate JWT. e.g. '{"iss": "Issuer", "nbf": 1610078130}'. This is optional but encouraged.
MAX_REPLICATION_LAG_MB  # {number}      If set, when the replication lag exceeds MAX_REPLICATION_LAG_MB (value must be a positive integer in megabytes), then replication slot is dropped, Realtime is restarted, and a new slot is created. Warning: setting MAX_REPLICATION_SLOT_MB could cause database changes to be lost when the replication slot is dropped.

EXAMPLE: RUNNING SERVER WITH ALL OPTIONS

# Update the environment variables to point to your own database
docker run                                                       \
  -e DB_HOST='docker.for.mac.host.internal'                      \
  -e DB_NAME='postgres'                                          \
  -e DB_USER='postgres'                                          \
  -e DB_PASSWORD='postgres'                                      \
  -e DB_PORT=5432                                                \
  -e DB_IP_VERSION='IPv4'                                        \
  -e SLOT_NAME='supabase_realtime'                               \
  -e PORT=4000                                                   \
  -e SECURE_CHANNELS='true'                                      \
  -e JWT_SECRET='SOMETHING_SUPER_SECRET'                         \
  -e JWT_CLAIM_VALIDATORS='{"iss": "Issuer", "nbf": 1610078130}' \
  -e MAX_REPLICATION_LAG_MB=1000                                 \
  -p 4000:4000                                                   \
  supabase/realtime

Websocket Connection Authorization

Websocket connections are authorized via symmetric JWT verification. Only supports JWTs signed with the following algorithms:

  • HS256
  • HS384
  • HS512

Verify JWT claims by setting JWT_CLAIM_VALIDATORS:

e.g. {'iss': 'Issuer', 'nbf': 1610078130}

Then JWT's "iss" value must equal "Issuer" and "nbf" value must equal 1610078130.

NOTE: JWT expiration is checked automatically.

Development: Channels are not secure by default. Set SECURE_CHANNELS to true to test JWT verification locally.

Production: Channels are secure by default and you must set JWT_SECRET. Set SECURE_CHANNELS to false to proceed without checking authorization.

Authorizing Client Connection: You can pass in the JWT by following the instructions under Usage in the @supabase/realtime-js client library or as query param in the WebSocket URL (e.g. wss://abc.supabase.co/realtime/v1/websocket?vsn=1.0.0&apikey=jwt).

License

This repo is licensed under Apache 2.0.

Credits

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