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rage: Rust implementation of age

rage is a simple, modern, and secure file encryption tool, using the age format. It features small explicit keys, no config options, and UNIX-style composability.

The format specification is at To discuss the spec or other age related topics, please email the mailing list at [email protected]. age was designed by @Benjojo12 and @FiloSottile.

The reference interoperable Go implementation is available at


  rage [--encrypt] -r RECIPIENT [-i IDENTITY] [-a] [-o OUTPUT] [INPUT]
  rage --decrypt [-i IDENTITY] [-o OUTPUT] [INPUT]

Positional arguments:
  INPUT                       Path to a file to read from.

Optional arguments:
  -h, --help                  Print this help message and exit.
  -V, --version               Print version info and exit.
  -e, --encrypt               Encrypt the input (the default).
  -d, --decrypt               Decrypt the input.
  -p, --passphrase            Encrypt with a passphrase instead of recipients.
  --max-work-factor WF        Maximum work factor to allow for passphrase decryption.
  -a, --armor                 Encrypt to a PEM encoded format.
  -r, --recipient RECIPIENT   Encrypt to the specified RECIPIENT. May be repeated.
  -R, --recipients-file PATH  Encrypt to the recipients listed at PATH. May be repeated.
  -i, --identity IDENTITY     Use the identity file at IDENTITY. May be repeated.
  -o, --output OUTPUT         Write the result to the file at path OUTPUT.

INPUT defaults to standard input, and OUTPUT defaults to standard output.

- An age public key, as generated by rage-keygen ("age1...").
- An SSH public key ("ssh-ed25519 AAAA...", "ssh-rsa AAAA...").

PATH is a path to a file containing age recipients, one per line
(ignoring "#" prefixed comments and empty lines).

IDENTITY is a path to a file with age identities, one per line
(ignoring "#" prefixed comments and empty lines), or to an SSH key file.
Passphrase-encrypted age identity files can be used as identity files.
Multiple identities may be provided, and any unused ones will be ignored.

Multiple recipients

Files can be encrypted to multiple recipients by repeating -r/--recipient. Every recipient will be able to decrypt the file.

$ rage -o example.png.age -r age1uvscypafkkxt6u2gkguxet62cenfmnpc0smzzlyun0lzszfatawq4kvf2u \
    -r age1ex4ty8ppg02555at009uwu5vlk5686k3f23e7mac9z093uvzfp8sxr5jum example.png

Recipient files

Multiple recipients can also be listed one per line in one or more files passed with the -R/--recipients-file flag.

$ cat recipients.txt
# Alice
# Bob
$ rage -R recipients.txt example.jpg > example.jpg.age


Files can be encrypted with a passphrase by using -p/--passphrase. By default rage will automatically generate a secure passphrase.

$ rage -p -o example.png.age example.png
Type passphrase (leave empty to autogenerate a secure one): [hidden]
Using an autogenerated passphrase:
$ rage -d example.png.age >example.png
Type passphrase: [hidden]

Passphrase-protected identity files

If an identity file passed to -i/--identity is a passphrase-encrypted age file, it will be automatically decrypted.

$ rage -p -o key.age <(rage-keygen)
Public key: age1pymw5hyr39qyuc950tget63aq8vfd52dclj8x7xhm08g6ad86dkserumnz
Type passphrase (leave empty to autogenerate a secure one): [hidden]
Using an autogenerated passphrase:
$ rage -r age1pymw5hyr39qyuc950tget63aq8vfd52dclj8x7xhm08g6ad86dkserumnz secrets.txt > secrets.txt.age
$ rage -d -i key.age secrets.txt.age > secrets.txt
Type passphrase: [hidden]

Passphrase-protected identity files are not necessary for most use cases, where access to the encrypted identity file implies access to the whole system. However, they can be useful if the identity file is stored remotely.

SSH keys

As a convenience feature, rage also supports encrypting to ssh-rsa and ssh-ed25519 SSH public keys, and decrypting with the respective private key file. (ssh-agent is not supported.)

$ rage -R ~/.ssh/ example.png > example.png.age
$ rage -d -i ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 example.png.age > example.png

Note that SSH key support employs more complex cryptography, and embeds a public key tag in the encrypted file, making it possible to track files that are encrypted to a specific public key.


On macOS or Linux, you can use Homebrew:

brew tap
brew install rage

On Windows, Linux, and macOS, you can use the pre-built binaries.

If your system has Rust 1.51+ installed (either via rustup or a system package), you can build directly from source:

cargo install rage

Note: previously the rage suite of tools was provided in the age Rust crate. This is no longer the case; age now only contains the Rust library.

Help from new packagers is very welcome.

Feature flags

  • mount enables the rage-mount tool, which can mount age-encrypted TAR or ZIP archives as read-only. It is currently only usable on Unix systems, as it relies on libfuse.

  • ssh (enabled by default) enables support for reusing existing SSH key files for age encryption.

  • unstable enables in-development functionality. Anything behind this feature flag has no stability or interoperability guarantees.


Licensed under either of

at your option.


Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

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