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= Preface === A Brief History of Spring's Data Integration Journey

Spring's journey on Data Integration started with[Spring Integration]. With its programming model, it provided a consistent developer experience to build applications that can embrace[Enterprise Integration Patterns] to connect with external systems such as, databases, message brokers, and among others.

Fast forward to the cloud-era, where microservices have become prominent in the enterprise setting.[Spring Boot] transformed the way how developers built Applications. With Spring's programming model and the runtime responsibilities handled by Spring Boot, it became seamless to develop stand-alone, production-grade Spring-based microservices.

To extend this to Data Integration workloads, Spring Integration and Spring Boot were put together into a new project. Spring Cloud Stream was born.

[%hardbreaks] With Spring Cloud Stream, developers can:

  • Build, test and deploy data-centric applications in isolation.
  • Apply modern microservices architecture patterns, including composition through messaging.
  • Decouple application responsibilities with event-centric thinking. An event can represent something that has happened in time, to which the downstream consumer applications can react without knowing where it originated or the producer's identity.
  • Port the business logic onto message brokers (such as RabbitMQ, Apache Kafka, Amazon Kinesis).
  • Rely on the framework's automatic content-type support for common use-cases. Extending to different data conversion types is possible.
  • and many more. . .

=== Quick Start

You can try Spring Cloud Stream in less than 5 min even before you jump into any details by following this three-step guide.

We show you how to create a Spring Cloud Stream application that receives messages coming from the messaging middleware of your choice (more on this later) and logs received messages to the console. We call it LoggingConsumer. While not very practical, it provides a good introduction to some of the main concepts and abstractions, making it easier to digest the rest of this user guide.

The three steps are as follows:

. <> . <> . <>

[[spring-cloud-stream-preface-creating-sample-application]] ==== Creating a Sample Application by Using Spring Initializr To get started, visit the[Spring Initializr]. From there, you can generate our LoggingConsumer application. To do so:

. In the Dependencies section, start typing stream. When the "Cloud Stream" option should appears, select it. . Start typing either 'kafka' or 'rabbit'. . Select "Kafka" or "RabbitMQ". + Basically, you choose the messaging middleware to which your application binds. We recommend using the one you have already installed or feel more comfortable with installing and running. Also, as you can see from the Initilaizer screen, there are a few other options you can choose. For example, you can choose Gradle as your build tool instead of Maven (the default). . In the Artifact field, type 'logging-consumer'. + The value of the Artifact field becomes the application name. If you chose RabbitMQ for the middleware, your Spring Initializr should now be as follows:

[%hardbreaks] [%hardbreaks] [%hardbreaks] image::/docs/src/main/asciidoc/images/spring-initializr.png[align="center"]

[%hardbreaks] [%hardbreaks]

. Click the Generate Project button. + Doing so downloads the zipped version of the generated project to your hard drive. . Unzip the file into the folder you want to use as your project directory.

TIP: We encourage you to explore the many possibilities available in the Spring Initializr. It lets you create many different kinds of Spring applications.

[[spring-cloud-stream-preface-importing-project]] ==== Importing the Project into Your IDE

Now you can import the project into your IDE. Keep in mind that, depending on the IDE, you may need to follow a specific import procedure. For example, depending on how the project was generated (Maven or Gradle), you may need to follow specific import procedure (for example, in Eclipse or STS, you need to use File -> Import -> Maven -> Existing Maven Project).

Once imported, the project must have no errors of any kind. Also, src/main/java should contain com.example.loggingconsumer.LoggingConsumerApplication.

Technically, at this point, you can run the application's main class. It is already a valid Spring Boot application. However, it does not do anything, so we want to add some code.

[[spring-cloud-stream-preface-adding-message-handler]] ==== Adding a Message Handler, Building, and Running

Modify the com.example.loggingconsumer.LoggingConsumerApplication class to look as follows:

[source, java]

@SpringBootApplication public class LoggingConsumerApplication {

public static void main(String[] args) {, args);

public Consumer<Person> log() {
    return person -> {
        System.out.println("Received: " + person);

public static class Person {
    private String name;
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    public void setName(String name) { = name;
    public String toString() {


As you can see from the preceding listing:

  • We are using functional programming model (see <>) to define a single message handler as Consumer.
  • We are relying on framework conventions to bind such handler to the input destination binding exposed by the binder.

Doing so also lets you see one of the core features of the framework: It tries to automatically convert incoming message payloads to type Person.

You now have a fully functional Spring Cloud Stream application that does listens for messages. From here, for simplicity, we assume you selected RabbitMQ in <<spring-cloud-stream-preface-creating-sample-application,step one>>. Assuming you have RabbitMQ installed and running, you can start the application by running its main method in your IDE.

You should see following output:


--- [ main] c.s.b.r.p.RabbitExchangeQueueProvisioner : declaring queue for inbound: input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg, bound to: input
--- [ main] o.s.a.r.c.CachingConnectionFactory       : Attempting to connect to: [localhost:5672]
--- [ main] o.s.a.r.c.CachingConnectionFactory       : Created new connection: rabbitConnectionFactory#2a3a299:0/[email protected] . .
. . .
--- [ main] o.s.i.a.i.AmqpInboundChannelAdapter      : started inbound.input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg
. . .
--- [ main] c.e.l.LoggingConsumerApplication         : Started LoggingConsumerApplication in 2.531 seconds (JVM running for 2.897)

Go to the RabbitMQ management console or any other RabbitMQ client and send a message to input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg. The anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg part represents the group name and is generated, so it is bound to be different in your environment. For something more predictable, you can use an explicit group name by setting (or whatever name you like).

The contents of the message should be a JSON representation of the Person class, as follows:

{"name":"Sam Spade"}

Then, in your console, you should see:

Received: Sam Spade

You can also build and package your application into a boot jar (by using ./mvnw clean install) and run the built JAR by using the java -jar command.

Now you have a working (albeit very basic) Spring Cloud Stream application.

== What's New in 3.x?

[[spring-cloud-stream-preface-new-features]] === New Features and Enhancements

  • Routing Function - see <> for more details.
  • StreamBridge - for dynamic destinations. See <<Sending arbitrary data to an output (e.g. Foreign event-driven sources)>> for more details.
  • Multiple bindings with functions (multiple message handlers) - see <> for more details.
  • Functions with multiple inputs/outputs (single function that can subscribe or target multiple destinations) - see <> for more details.
  • Native support for reactive programming - since v3.0.0 we no longer distribute spring-cloud-stream-reactive modules and instead relying on native reactive support provided by spring cloud function. For backward compatibility you can still bring spring-cloud-stream-reactive from previous versions.

[[spring-cloud-stream-preface-notable-deprecations]] === Notable Deprecations

  • Annotation-based programming model. Basically the @EnableBInding, @StreamListener and all related annotations are now deprecated in favor of the functional programming model. See <> for more details.
  • Reactive module (spring-cloud-stream-reactive) is discontinued and no longer distributed in favor of native support via spring-cloud-function. For backward compatibility you can still bring spring-cloud-stream-reactive from previous versions.
  • Test support binder spring-cloud-stream-test-support with MessageCollector in favor of a new test binder. See <> for more details.
  • @StreamMessageConverter - deprecated as it is no longer required.
  • The original-content-type header references have been removed after it's been deprecated in v2.0.
  • The BinderAwareChannelResolver is deprecated in favor if providing property. This is primarily for function-based programming model. For StreamListener it would still be required and thus will stay until we deprecate and eventually discontinue StreamListener and annotation-based programming model.

= Appendices [appendix] [[building]] == Building

:jdkversion: 1.8

=== Basic Compile and Test

To build the source you will need to install JDK {jdkversion}.

The build uses the Maven wrapper so you don't have to install a specific version of Maven. To enable the tests for Redis, Rabbit, and Kafka bindings you should have those servers running before building. See below for more information on running the servers.

The main build command is

$ ./mvnw clean install

You can also add '-DskipTests' if you like, to avoid running the tests.

NOTE: You can also install Maven (>=3.3.3) yourself and run the mvn command in place of ./mvnw in the examples below. If you do that you also might need to add -P spring if your local Maven settings do not contain repository declarations for spring pre-release artifacts.

NOTE: Be aware that you might need to increase the amount of memory available to Maven by setting a MAVEN_OPTS environment variable with a value like -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m. We try to cover this in the .mvn configuration, so if you find you have to do it to make a build succeed, please raise a ticket to get the settings added to source control.

The projects that require middleware generally include a docker-compose.yml, so consider using[Docker Compose] to run the middeware servers in Docker containers. See the README in the[scripts demo repository] for specific instructions about the common cases of mongo, rabbit and redis.

=== Documentation

There is a "full" profile that will generate documentation.

=== Working with the code If you don't have an IDE preference we would recommend that you use[Spring Tools Suite] or[Eclipse] when working with the code. We use the[m2eclipe] eclipse plugin for maven support. Other IDEs and tools should also work without issue.

==== Importing into eclipse with m2eclipse We recommend the[m2eclipe] eclipse plugin when working with eclipse. If you don't already have m2eclipse installed it is available from the "eclipse marketplace".

Unfortunately m2e does not yet support Maven 3.3, so once the projects are imported into Eclipse you will also need to tell m2eclipse to use the .settings.xml file for the projects. If you do not do this you may see many different errors related to the POMs in the projects. Open your Eclipse preferences, expand the Maven preferences, and select User Settings. In the User Settings field click Browse and navigate to the Spring Cloud project you imported selecting the .settings.xml file in that project. Click Apply and then OK to save the preference changes.

NOTE: Alternatively you can copy the repository settings from[`.settings.xml`] into your own ~/.m2/settings.xml.

==== Importing into eclipse without m2eclipse If you prefer not to use m2eclipse you can generate eclipse project metadata using the following command:


$ ./mvnw eclipse:eclipse

The generated eclipse projects can be imported by selecting import existing projects from the file menu.

[[contributing]] == Contributing

Spring Cloud is released under the non-restrictive Apache 2.0 license, and follows a very standard Github development process, using Github tracker for issues and merging pull requests into master. If you want to contribute even something trivial please do not hesitate, but follow the guidelines below.

=== Sign the Contributor License Agreement Before we accept a non-trivial patch or pull request we will need you to sign the[contributor's agreement]. Signing the contributor's agreement does not grant anyone commit rights to the main repository, but it does mean that we can accept your contributions, and you will get an author credit if we do. Active contributors might be asked to join the core team, and given the ability to merge pull requests.

=== Code Conventions and Housekeeping None of these is essential for a pull request, but they will all help. They can also be added after the original pull request but before a merge.

  • Use the Spring Framework code format conventions. If you use Eclipse you can import formatter settings using the eclipse-code-formatter.xml file from the[Spring Cloud Build] project. If using IntelliJ, you can use the[Eclipse Code Formatter Plugin] to import the same file.
  • Make sure all new .java files to have a simple Javadoc class comment with at least an @author tag identifying you, and preferably at least a paragraph on what the class is for.
  • Add the ASF license header comment to all new .java files (copy from existing files in the project)
  • Add yourself as an @author to the .java files that you modify substantially (more than cosmetic changes).
  • Add some Javadocs and, if you change the namespace, some XSD doc elements.
  • A few unit tests would help a lot as well -- someone has to do it.
  • If no-one else is using your branch, please rebase it against the current master (or other target branch in the main project).
  • When writing a commit message please follow[these conventions], if you are fixing an existing issue please add Fixes gh-XXXX at the end of the commit message (where XXXX is the issue number).

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