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nvim-treesitter

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Logo

Treesitter configurations and abstraction layer for Neovim.

Logo by @steelsojka

The goal of nvim-treesitter is both to provide a simple and easy way to use the interface for tree-sitter in Neovim and to provide some basic functionality such as highlighting based on it:

cpp example

Traditional highlighting (left) vs Treesitter-based highlighting (right). More examples can be found in our gallery.

Warning: Treesitter and nvim-treesitter highlighting are an experimental feature of Neovim. Please consider the experience with this plug-in as experimental until Tree-Sitter support in Neovim is stable! We recommend using the nightly builds of Neovim if possible. You can find the current roadmap here. The roadmap and all features of this plugin are open to change, and any suggestion will be highly appreciated!

Nvim-treesitter is based on three interlocking features: language parsers, queries, and modules, where modules provide features – e.g., highlighting – based on queries for syntax objects extracted from a given buffer by language parsers. Users will generally only need to interact with parsers and modules as explained in the next section. For more detailed information on setting these up, see "Advanced setup".


Table of contents


Quickstart

Requirements

  • Neovim 0.7.0 or later built with tree-sitter 0.20.3+ (latest nightly recommended)
  • tar and curl in your path (or alternatively git)
  • A C compiler in your path and libstdc++ installed (Windows users please read this!).

Installation

You can install nvim-treesitter with your favorite package manager (or using the native package feature of vim, see :h packages).

NOTE: This plugin is only guaranteed to work with specific versions of language parsers (as specified in the lockfile.json). When upgrading the plugin, you must make sure that all installed parsers are updated to the latest version via :TSUpdate. It is strongly recommended to automate this; e.g., if you are using vim-plug, put this in your init.vim file:

Plug 'nvim-treesitter/nvim-treesitter', {'do': ':TSUpdate'}

For other plugin managers such as packer.nvim, see this Installation page from the wiki (Note that this page is community maintained).

Language parsers

Treesitter uses a different parser for every language, which needs to be generated via tree-sitter-cli from a grammar.js file, then compiled to a .so library that needs to be placed in neovim's runtimepath (typically under parser/{language}.so). To simplify this, nvim-treesitter provides commands to automate this process. If the language is already supported by nvim-treesitter, you can install it with

:TSInstall <language_to_install>

This command supports tab expansion. You can also get a list of all available languages and their installation status with :TSInstallInfo. Parsers not on this list can be added manually by following the steps described under "Adding parsers" below.

To make sure a parser is at the latest compatible version (as specified in nvim-treesitter's lockfile.json), use :TSUpdate {language}. To update all parsers unconditionally, use :TSUpdate all or just :TSUpdate.

Modules

Each module provides a distinct tree-sitter-based feature such as highlighting, indentation, or folding; see :h nvim-treesitter-modules or "Available modules" below for a list of modules and their options.

Following examples assume that you are configuring neovim with lua. If you are using vimscript, see :help lua-heredoc. All modules are disabled by default and need to be activated explicitly in your init.lua, e.g., via

require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
  -- A list of parser names, or "all"
  ensure_installed = { "c", "lua", "rust" },

  -- Install parsers synchronously (only applied to `ensure_installed`)
  sync_install = false,

  -- List of parsers to ignore installing (for "all")
  ignore_install = { "javascript" },

  highlight = {
    -- `false` will disable the whole extension
    enable = true,

    -- NOTE: these are the names of the parsers and not the filetype. (for example if you want to
    -- disable highlighting for the `tex` filetype, you need to include `latex` in this list as this is
    -- the name of the parser)
    -- list of language that will be disabled
    disable = { "c", "rust" },

    -- Setting this to true will run `:h syntax` and tree-sitter at the same time.
    -- Set this to `true` if you depend on 'syntax' being enabled (like for indentation).
    -- Using this option may slow down your editor, and you may see some duplicate highlights.
    -- Instead of true it can also be a list of languages
    additional_vim_regex_highlighting = false,
  },
}

Each module can also be enabled or disabled interactively through the following commands:

:TSBufEnable {module} " enable module on current buffer
:TSBufDisable {module} " disable module on current buffer
:TSEnable {module} [{ft}] " enable module on every buffer. If filetype is specified, enable only for this filetype.
:TSDisable {module} [{ft}] " disable module on every buffer. If filetype is specified, disable only for this filetype.
:TSModuleInfo [{module}] " list information about modules state for each filetype

Check :h nvim-treesitter-commands for a list of all available commands. It may be necessary to reload the buffer (e.g., via :e) after enabling a module interactively.

Supported languages

For nvim-treesitter to support a specific feature for a specific language requires both a parser for that language and an appropriate language-specific query file for that feature.

The following is a list of languages for which a parser can be installed through :TSInstall; a checked box means that nvim-treesitter also contains queries at least for the highlight module.

Experimental parsers are parsers that have a maintainer but are not stable enough for daily use yet.

We are looking for maintainers to add more parsers and to write query files for their languages. Check our tracking issue for open language requests.

  • [x] astro (maintained by @virchau13)
  • [x] bash (maintained by @TravonteD)
  • [x] beancount (maintained by @polarmutex)
  • [x] bibtex (maintained by @theHamsta, @clason)
  • [x] c (maintained by @vigoux)
  • [x] c_sharp (maintained by @Luxed)
  • [x] clojure (maintained by @sogaiu)
  • [x] cmake (maintained by @uyha)
  • [x] comment (maintained by @stsewd)
  • [x] commonlisp (maintained by @theHamsta)
  • [x] cooklang (maintained by @addcninblue)
  • [x] cpp (maintained by @theHamsta)
  • [x] css (maintained by @TravonteD)
  • [x] cuda (maintained by @theHamsta)
  • [x] d (experimental, maintained by @nawordar)
  • [x] dart (maintained by @Akin909)
  • [x] devicetree (maintained by @jedrzejboczar)
  • [x] dockerfile (maintained by @camdencheek)
  • [x] dot (maintained by @rydesun)
  • [x] eex (maintained by @connorlay)
  • [x] elixir (maintained by @jonatanklosko, @connorlay)
  • [ ] elm
  • [x] elvish (maintained by @ckafi)
  • [ ] embedded_template
  • [x] erlang (maintained by @ostera)
  • [x] fennel (maintained by @TravonteD)
  • [x] fish (maintained by @ram02z)
  • [x] foam (experimental, maintained by @FoamScience)
  • [ ] fortran
  • [x] fusion (maintained by @jirgn)
  • [x] Godot (gdscript) (maintained by @Shatur95)
  • [x] gleam (maintained by @connorlay)
  • [x] Glimmer and Ember (maintained by @alexlafroscia)
  • [x] glsl (maintained by @theHamsta)
  • [x] go (maintained by @theHamsta, @WinWisely268)
  • [x] Godot Resources (gdresource) (maintained by @pierpo)
  • [x] gomod (maintained by @camdencheek)
  • [x] gowork (maintained by @omertuc)
  • [x] graphql (maintained by @bkegley)
  • [ ] hack
  • [ ] haskell
  • [x] hcl (maintained by @MichaHoffmann)
  • [x] heex (maintained by @connorlay)
  • [x] help (experimental, maintained by @vigoux)
  • [x] hjson (maintained by @winston0410)
  • [x] hocon (maintained by @antosha417)
  • [x] html (maintained by @TravonteD)
  • [x] http (maintained by @NTBBloodbath)
  • [x] java (maintained by @p00f)
  • [x] javascript (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] jsdoc (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] json (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] json5 (maintained by @Joakker)
  • [x] JSON with comments (maintained by @WhyNotHugo)
  • [x] julia (maintained by @mroavi, @theHamsta)
  • [x] kotlin (maintained by @SalBakraa)
  • [x] lalrpop (maintained by @traxys)
  • [x] latex (maintained by @theHamsta, @clason)
  • [x] ledger (maintained by @cbarrete)
  • [x] llvm (maintained by @benwilliamgraham)
  • [x] lua (maintained by @muniftanjim)
  • [x] m68k (maintained by @grahambates)
  • [x] make (maintained by @lewis6991)
  • [x] markdown (experimental, maintained by @MDeiml)
  • [x] markdown_inline (experimental, maintained by @MDeiml)
  • [x] ninja (maintained by @alemuller)
  • [x] nix (maintained by @leo60228)
  • [x] norg (maintained by @JoeyGrajciar, @vhyrro, @mrossinek)
  • [x] ocaml (maintained by @undu)
  • [x] ocaml_interface (maintained by @undu)
  • [x] ocamllex (maintained by @undu)
  • [ ] org
  • [x] pascal (maintained by @isopod)
  • [x] perl (maintained by @ganezdragon)
  • [x] php (maintained by @tk-shirasaka)
  • [x] phpdoc (experimental, maintained by @mikehaertl)
  • [x] pioasm (maintained by @leo60228)
  • [x] prisma (maintained by @elianiva)
  • [x] proto (maintained by @fsouza)
  • [x] pug (maintained by @zealot128)
  • [x] python (maintained by @stsewd, @theHamsta)
  • [x] ql (maintained by @pwntester)
  • [x] Tree-sitter query language (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] r (maintained by @jimhester)
  • [x] rasi (maintained by @Fymyte)
  • [x] regex (maintained by @theHamsta)
  • [x] rego (maintained by @FallenAngel97)
  • [x] rnoweb (maintained by @bamonroe)
  • [x] rst (maintained by @stsewd)
  • [x] ruby (maintained by @TravonteD)
  • [x] rust (maintained by @vigoux)
  • [x] scala (maintained by @stevanmilic)
  • [x] scheme (maintained by @6cdh)
  • [x] scss (maintained by @elianiva)
  • [x] slint (experimental, maintained by @jrmoulton)
  • [x] solidity (maintained by @YongJieYongJie)
  • [x] sparql (maintained by @bonabeavis)
  • [x] supercollider (maintained by @madskjeldgaard)
  • [x] surface (maintained by @connorlay)
  • [x] svelte (maintained by @elianiva)
  • [x] swift (maintained by @alex-pinkus)
  • [x] teal (maintained by @euclidianAce)
  • [x] tiger (maintained by @ambroisie)
  • [x] tlaplus (maintained by @ahelwer, @susliko)
  • [x] todotxt (experimental, maintained by @arnarg)
  • [x] toml (maintained by @tk-shirasaka)
  • [x] tsx (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] turtle (maintained by @bonabeavis)
  • [x] typescript (maintained by @steelsojka)
  • [x] v (maintained by @tami5)
  • [x] vala (maintained by @matbme)
  • [x] verilog (experimental, maintained by @zegervdv)
  • [x] vim (maintained by @vigoux)
  • [x] vue (maintained by @WhyNotHugo)
  • [x] wgsl (maintained by @szebniok)
  • [x] yaml (maintained by @stsewd)
  • [x] yang (maintained by @Hubro)
  • [x] zig (maintained by @maxxnino)

For related information on the supported languages, including related plugins, see this wiki page.

Available modules

Modules provide the top-level features of nvim-treesitter. The following is a list of modules included in nvim-treesitter and their configuration via init.lua (where multiple modules can be combined in a single call to setup). Note that not all modules work for all languages (depending on the queries available for them). Additional modules can be provided as external plugins.

Highlight

Consistent syntax highlighting.

require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
  highlight = {
    enable = true,
    -- Setting this to true will run `:h syntax` and tree-sitter at the same time.
    -- Set this to `true` if you depend on 'syntax' being enabled (like for indentation).
    -- Using this option may slow down your editor, and you may see some duplicate highlights.
    -- Instead of true it can also be a list of languages
    additional_vim_regex_highlighting = false,
  },
}

You can add custom highlight captures with:

lua <<EOF
  require"nvim-treesitter.highlight".set_custom_captures {
    -- Highlight the @foo.bar capture group with the "Identifier" highlight group.
    ["foo.bar"] = "Identifier",
  }
EOF

Incremental selection

Incremental selection based on the named nodes from the grammar.

require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
  incremental_selection = {
    enable = true,
    keymaps = {
      init_selection = "gnn",
      node_incremental = "grn",
      scope_incremental = "grc",
      node_decremental = "grm",
    },
  },
}

Indentation

Indentation based on treesitter for the = operator. NOTE: This is an experimental feature.

require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
  indent = {
    enable = true
  }
}

Folding

Tree-sitter based folding. (Technically not a module because it's per windows and not per buffer.)

set foldmethod=expr
set foldexpr=nvim_treesitter#foldexpr()

This will respect your foldminlines and foldnestmax settings.

Advanced setup

Changing the parser install directory

If you want to install the parsers to a custom directory you can specify this directory with parser_install_dir option in that is passed to setup. nvim-treesitter will then install the parser files into this directory.

This directory must be writeable and must be explicitly added to the runtimepath. For example:

  require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
    parser_install_dir = "/some/path/to/store/parsers",

    ...

  }
  vim.opt.runtimepath:append("/some/path/to/store/parsers")

If this option is not included in the setup options, or is explicitly set to nil then the default install directories will be used. If this value is set the default directories will be ignored.

Bear in mind that any parser installed into a parser folder on the runtime path will still be considered installed. (For example if "~/.local/share/nvim/site/parser/c.so" exists then the "c" parser will be considered installed, even though it is not in parser_install_dir)

The default paths are:

  1. first the package folder. Where nvim-treesitter is installed.
  2. second the site directory. This is the "site" subdirectory of stdpath("data").

Adding parsers

If you have a parser that is not on the list of supported languages (either as a repository on Github or in a local directory), you can add it manually for use by nvim-treesitter as follows:

  1. Clone the repository or create a new project in, say, ~/projects/tree-sitter-zimbu. Make sure that the tree-sitter-cli executable is installed and in your path; see https://tree-sitter.github.io/tree-sitter/creating-parsers#installation for installation instructions.
  2. Run tree-sitter generate in this directory (followed by tree-sitter test for good measure).
  3. Add the following snippet to your init.lua:
local parser_config = require "nvim-treesitter.parsers".get_parser_configs()
parser_config.zimbu = {
  install_info = {
    url = "~/projects/tree-sitter-zimbu", -- local path or git repo
    files = {"src/parser.c"},
    -- optional entries:
    branch = "main", -- default branch in case of git repo if different from master
    generate_requires_npm = false, -- if stand-alone parser without npm dependencies
    requires_generate_from_grammar = false, -- if folder contains pre-generated src/parser.c
  },
  filetype = "zu", -- if filetype does not match the parser name
}

If you wish to set a specific parser for a filetype, you should extend the filetype_to_parsername table:

local ft_to_parser = require"nvim-treesitter.parsers".filetype_to_parsername
ft_to_parser.someft = "python" -- the someft filetype will use the python parser and queries.
  1. Start nvim and :TSInstall zimbu.

You can also skip step 2 and use :TSInstallFromGrammar zimbu to install directly from a grammar.js in the top-level directory specified by url. Once the parser is installed, you can update it (from the latest revision of the main branch if url is a Github repository) with :TSUpdate zimbu.

Note that neither :TSInstall nor :TSInstallFromGrammar copy query files from the grammar repository. If you want your installed grammar to be useful, you must manually add query files to your local nvim-treesitter installation. Note also that module functionality is only triggered if your language's filetype is correctly identified. If Neovim does not detect your language's filetype by default, you can use Neovim's vim.filetype.add() to add a custom detection rule.

If you use a git repository for your parser and want to use a specific version, you can set the revision key in the install_info table for you parser config.

Adding queries

Queries are what nvim-treesitter uses to extract information from the syntax tree; they are located in the queries/{language}/* runtime directories (see :h rtp), like the queries folder of this plugin, e.g. queries/{language}/{locals,highlights,textobjects}.scm. Other modules may require additional queries such as folding.scm. You can find a list of all supported capture names in CONTRIBUTING.md.

All queries found in the runtime directories will be combined. By convention, if you want to write a query, use the queries/ directory, but if you want to extend a query use the after/queries/ directory.

If you want to completely override a query, you can use :h set_query(). For example, to override the injections queries from c with your own:

require("vim.treesitter.query").set_query("c", "injections", "(comment) @comment")

Note: when using set_query, all queries in the runtime directories will be ignored.

Adding modules

If you wish you write your own module, you need to support

  • tree-sitter language detection support;
  • attaching and detaching to buffers;
  • all nvim-treesitter commands.

At the top level, you can use the define_modules function to define one or more modules or module groups:

require'nvim-treesitter'.define_modules {
  my_cool_plugin = {
    attach = function(bufnr, lang)
      -- Do cool stuff here
    end,
    detach = function(bufnr)
      -- Undo cool stuff here
    end,
    is_supported = function(lang)
      -- Check if the language is supported
    end
  }
}

with the following properties:

  • module_path specifies a require path (string) that exports a module with an attach and detach function. This is not required if the functions are on this definition.
  • enable determines if the module is enabled by default. This is usually overridden by the user.
  • disable takes a list of languages that this module is disabled for. This is usually overridden by the user.
  • is_supported takes a function that takes a language and determines if this module supports that language.
  • attach takes a function that attaches to a buffer. This is required if module_path is not provided.
  • detach takes a function that detaches from a buffer. This is required if module_path is not provided.

Extra features

Statusline indicator

echo nvim_treesitter#statusline(90)  " 90 can be any length
module->expression_statement->call->identifier

Utilities

You can get some utility functions with

local ts_utils = require 'nvim-treesitter.ts_utils'

Check :h nvim-treesitter-utils for more information.

Troubleshooting

Before doing anything, make sure you have the latest version of this plugin and run :checkhealth nvim-treesitter. It can also help to update the parsers via :TSUpdate.

Feature X does not work for {language}...

First, check the health#nvim_treesitter#check and the health#treesitter#check sections of :checkhealth for any warning. If there is one, it's highly likely that this is the cause of the problem.

Next check the ## Parser/Features subsection of the health#nvim_treesitter#check section of :checkhealth to ensure the desired module is enabled for your language. If not, you might be missing query files; see Adding queries.

Finally, ensure Neovim is correctly identifying your language's filetype using the :echo &filetype command while one of your language's files is open in Neovim. If not, add a short Vimscript file to nvim-treesitter's ftdetect runtime directory following Neovim's documentation on filetype detection. You can also quickly & temporarily set the filetype for a single buffer with the :set filetype=langname command to test whether it fixes the problem.

If everything is okay, then it might be an actual error. In that case, feel free to open an issue here.

I get module 'vim.treesitter.query' not found

Make sure you have the latest version of Neovim.

I get Error detected while processing .../plugin/nvim-treesitter.vim every time I open Neovim

This is probably due to a change in a parser's grammar or its queries. Try updating the parser that you suspect has changed (:TSUpdate {language}) or all of them (:TSUpdate). If the error persists after updating all parsers, please open an issue.

I get query error: invalid node type at position

This could be due a query file outside this plugin using outdated nodes, or due to an outdated parser.

  • Make sure you have the parsers up to date with :TSUpdate
  • Make sure you don't have more than one parser runtime directory. You can execute this command :echo nvim_get_runtime_file('parser', v:true) to find all runtime directories. If you get more than one path, remove the ones that are outside this plugin (nvim-treesitter directory), so the correct version of the parser is used.

I experience weird highlighting issues similar to #78

This is a well known issue, which arises when the tree and the buffer have gotten out of sync. As this is an upstream issue, we don't have any definite fix. To get around this, you can force reparsing the buffer with

:write | edit | TSBufEnable highlight

This will save, restore and enable highlighting for the current buffer.

I experience bugs when using nvim-treesitter's foldexpr similar to #194

This might happen, and is known to happen, with vim-clap. To avoid these kind of errors, please use setlocal instead of set for the respective filetypes.

I run into errors like module 'nvim-treesitter.configs' not found at startup

This is because of rtp management in nvim, adding packadd nvim-treesitter should fix the issue.

I want to use Git instead of curl for downloading the parsers

In your Lua config:

require("nvim-treesitter.install").prefer_git = true

I want to use a HTTP proxy for downloading the parsers

You can either configure curl to use additional CLI arguments in your Lua config:

require("nvim-treesitter.install").command_extra_args = {
    curl = { "--proxy", "<proxy url>" },
}

or you can configure git via .gitconfig and use git instead of curl

require("nvim-treesitter.install").prefer_git = true

I want to use a mirror instead of "https://github.com/"

In your Lua config:

for _, config in pairs(require("nvim-treesitter.parsers").get_parser_configs()) do
  config.install_info.url = config.install_info.url:gsub("https://github.com/", "something else")
end

require'nvim-treesitter.configs'.setup {
    --
    --
}
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