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Lucene Server

This project provides a simple, example HTTP server on top of Apache Lucene version 6.x snapshot sources, exposing many of Lucene's core and modules functionality efficiently over a simple REST/JSON HTTP API.

Note that this code is all very new and likely has exciting bugs! But it's also very fast!

This server is running "in production" at Jira search, a simple search instance for developers to find Lucene, Solr and Tika jira issues updated in near-real-time.


The design differs from the popular Lucene-based search servers Elasticsearch and Apache Solr in that it is more of a minimal, thin wrapper around Lucene's functions. The goal is to only expose functions that the Apache Lucene project already offers. For example, there is no "cluster" support, no aggregations (but there are facets).

A single node can index documents, run near-real-time searches via DSL or parsed query string, including "scrolled" searches, geo point searches, highlighting, joins, sorting, index-time sorting, grouping, faceting, etc.

Fields must first be registered with the registerFields command, where you express whether you will search, sort, highlight, group, etc., and then documents can be indexed with those fields.

There is no transaction log, so you must call commit yourself periodically to make recent changes durable on disk. This means that if a node crashes, all indexed documents since the last commit are lost.

Bulk indexing via JSON or CSV

Lucene server supports a streaming bulk indexing API, which means you make a single connection, and send the bytes over as either JSON, using a chunked HTTP request, or as CSV, using a simple binary TCP connection.

Inside the server, the incoming bytes are broken up and parsed into documents concurrently based on how many cores are available. In performance tests indexing 1.2 billion documents in the New York City taxi ride data, a single python client (see below) sending bulk CSV documents to index reaches almost the same performance as a raw standalone Lucene tool indexing from the same source.

Near-real-time replication

Near-real-time index replication allows additional replica nodes on the network to copy newly created index files from the primary node, in near-real-time. This has some strong benefits over document-based replication used by Elasticsearch and Apache Solr:

  • No indexing cost on the replica nodes, just copying bytes for new files, and opening new near-real-time searchers

  • Consistent point-in-time searcher versions across primary and replicas, so that a follow-on search will see precisely the same point-in-time view even if it is sent to a different replica

But there are downsides as well:

  • Merged segments must also be copied

  • Additional time when opening a new searcher to copy the files across the network, since the primary must first write the files, and then each replica must copy them.

Build and install

This has only been tested on Linux:

To run the server, run ./ package, which will build the installable bits at build/

Unzip that somewhere, cd luceneserver-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT and run java -cp "lib/*" org.apache.lucene.server.Server. Make sure you put double quotes around that "lib/*" so java sees that asterisk and not your shell!

Live documentation

Once the server is running, load http://localhost:4000/docs to see minimal documentation of all REST commands and their accepted parameters.

Example indexing tool

The scripts/ shows an example of using a Python client to bulk-index documents from the New York City taxi ride data, optionally spawning replicas as well. It will build the release artifact, install it, launch it, download the taxis document source (first 1 M documents), and index them.

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