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Awesome Open Source

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Table of Contents

Native
Android
iOS
Windows

HAHAHA. No.

Sublime snippets
{
    "scope": "source.js",
    "completions": [
	{"trigger": "fridainterceptor", "contents": "Interceptor.attach(\n    ptr,\n    {\n        onEnter:function(args) {\n\n        },\n        onLeave: function(retval) {\n\n        }\n    }\n)"},
	{"trigger": "fridaperform", "contents": "function main(){\n    console.log('main()');\n}\n\nconsole.log('script loaded');\nJava.perform(main);"},
	{"trigger": "fridause", "contents": "var kls = Java.use('kls');"},
	{"trigger": "fridahex", "contents": "hexdump(\n    ptr,\n    {\n         offset: 0,\n         length: ptr_size\n     }\n);" },
	{"trigger": "fridabacktrace", "contents": "console.log('called from:\\n' +\n        Thread.backtrace(this.context, Backtracer.ACCURATE)\n        .map(DebugSymbol.fromAddress).join('\\n') + '\\n'\n);"},
	{"trigger": "fridamods", "contents": "var mods = Process.enumerateModules().filter(function(mod){\n    return mod.name.includes(\"<name>\");\n});"},
	{"trigger": "fridaexport", "contents": "Module.findExportByName(null, \"<export_name>\");"},
	{"trigger": "fridabase", "contents": "Module.findBaseAddress(name);"},
	{"trigger": "fridaoverload", "contents": "kls.method_name.overload().implementation=function(){}"}
    ]
}
Vim snippets

To list abbreviations :ab

Expand by writing key and <Space>

  • Add to ~/.vimrc
ab fridaintercept Interceptor.attach(ptr, {<CR><Tab>onEnter: function(args) {<CR><CR>},<CR>onLeave: function(retval) {<CR><CR>}<CR><BS>})
ab fridabacktrace console.warn(Thread.backtrace(this.context, Backtracer.ACCURATE).map(DebugSymbol.fromAddress).join('\n'));<ESC>F(3;
ab fridadescribe console.log(Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Java.use('$').__proto__).join('\n\t'))<Esc>F$

Load CPP module

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

extern "C" {
  void* create_stdstr(char *data, int size) {
    std::string* s = new std::string();
    (*s).assign(data, size);		  
    return s;
  }
}
$ ./android-ndk/toolchains/llvm/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/aarch64-linux-android21-clang++ a.cpp -o a -shared -static-libstdc++ && adb push a /data/local/tmp/a
[device]-> 
function readStdString(str) {
  if ((str.readU8() & 1) === 1) { // size LSB (=1) indicates if it's a long string
    return str.add(2 * Process.pointerSize).readPointer().readUtf8String();    
  }
  return str.add(1).readUtf8String();  
}
[device]-> Module.load('/data/local/tmp/a');
[device]-> var fp_create_stdstr = Module.findExportByName('a', 'create_stdstr');
[device]-> var createStdString = new NativeFunction(fp_create_stdstr, 'pointer', ['pointer', 'int']);
[device]-> var stdstr1 = createStdString(Memory.allocUtf8String("abcd"), 3);
"0x07691234567"
[device]-> readStdString(stdstr1);
"abc"

Load C module

$ ./aarch64-linux-android21-clang /tmp/b.c -o /tmp/a -shared ../sysroot/usr/lib/aarch64-linux-android/21/liblog.so && adb push /tmp/a /data/local/tmp/a
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <android/log.h>    

#define TAG "TEST1"
#define LOGI(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_INFO, TAG, __VA_ARGS__)
#define LOGE(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_ERROR, TAG, __VA_ARGS__)

void test(void) {
  FILE* fp = popen("ls -l /sdcard 2>&1", "r");
  if (fp == NULL)
    LOGE("executing cmd failed");
  char b[256];
  while (fgets(b, sizeof(b), fp) != NULL) {
    LOGI("%s", b);
  }
  pclose(fp);
}

$ frida -Uf com.app --no-pause --enable-jit -e "Module.load('/data/local/tmp/a')"
[ ] -> new NativeFunction(Module.findExportByName('a', 'test'), 'void', [])()


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One time watchpoint

Intercept funcPtr & log who read/write to x2 via removing permissions w/ mprotect.

Process.setExceptionHandler(function(exp) {
  console.warn(JSON.stringify(Object.assign(exp, { _lr: DebugSymbol.fromAddress(exp.context.lr), _pc: DebugSymbol.fromAddress(exp.context.pc) }), null, 2));
  Memory.protect(exp.memory.address, Process.pointerSize, 'rw-');
  // can also use `new NativeFunction(Module.findExportByName(null, 'mprotect'), 'int', ['pointer', 'uint', 'int'])(parseInt(this.context.x2), 2, 0)`
  return true; // goto PC 
});

Interceptor.attach(funcPtr, {
  onEnter: function (args) {
    console.log('onEnter', JSON.stringify({
      x2: this.context.x2,
      mprotect_ret: Memory.protect(this.context.x2, 2, '---'),
      errno: this.errno
    }, null, 2));
  },
  onLeave: function (retval) {
    console.log('onLeave');
  }
});
Output example
[iOS Device::com.app]-> onEnter {
  "x2": "0x1c145c6e0",
  "mprotect_ret": true,
  "errno": 2
}
{
  "type": "access-violation",
  "address": "0x1853b0198",
  "memory": {
    "operation": "read",
    "address": "0x1c145c6e0"
  },
  "context": {
    "lr": "0x100453358",
    "fp": "0x16fb2e860",
    "x28": "0x0",
    "x27": "0x0",
    "x26": "0x104312600",
    "x25": "0x0",
    "x24": "0x0",
    "x23": "0x0",
    "x22": "0x0",
    "x21": "0xb000000422bbda03",
    "x20": "0x1c4a22560",
    "x19": "0xb000000422bbda03",
    "x18": "0x0",
    "x17": "0x100d25290",
    "x16": "0x1853b0190",
    "x15": "0x0",
    "x14": "0x5",
    "x13": "0xe5a1c4119597",
    "x12": "0x10e80ca30",
    "x11": "0x180000003f",
    "x10": "0x10e80ca00",
    "x9": "0x1020ad7c3",
    "x8": "0x0",
    "x7": "0x0",
    "x6": "0x0",
    "x5": "0x0",
    "x4": "0xb000000422bbda03",
    "x3": "0x1c4a22560",
    "x2": "0x1c145c6e0",
    "x1": "0x1020ad7c3",
    "x0": "0x1c145c6e0",
    "sp": "0x16fb2e790",
    "pc": "0x1853b0198"
  },
  "nativeContext": "0x16fc42b24"
}
onLeave


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Socket activity

Process
  .getModuleByName({ linux: 'libc.so', darwin: 'libSystem.B.dylib', windows: 'ws2_32.dll' }[Process.platform])
  .enumerateExports().filter(ex => ex.type === 'function' && ['connect', 'recv', 'send', 'read', 'write'].some(prefix => ex.name.indexOf(prefix) === 0))
  .forEach(ex => {
    Interceptor.attach(ex.address, {
      onEnter: function (args) {
        var fd = args[0].toInt32();
        if (Socket.type(fd) !== 'tcp')
          return;
        var address = Socket.peerAddress(fd);
        if (address === null)
          return;
        console.log(fd, ex.name, address.ip + ':' + address.port);
      }
    })
  })
Output example

Android example

# wrap the script above inside Java.perform
$ frida -Uf com.example.app -l script.js --no-pause
[Android Model-X::com.example.app]-> 117 write 5.0.2.1:5242
117 read 5.0.2.1:5242
135 write 5.0.2.1:4244
135 read 5.0.2.1:4244
135 read 5.0.2.1:4244


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Intercept Open

An example for intercepting libc#open & logging backtrace if specific file was opened.

Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName("/system/lib/libc.so", "open"), {
  onEnter: function(args) {
    this.flag = false;
    var filename = Memory.readCString(ptr(args[0]));
    console.log('filename =', filename)
    if (filename.endsWith(".xml")) {
      this.flag = true;
      var backtrace = Thread.backtrace(this.context, Backtracer.ACCURATE).map(DebugSymbol.fromAddress).join("\n\t");
      console.log("file name [ " + Memory.readCString(ptr(args[0])) + " ]\nBacktrace:" + backtrace);
    }
  },
  onLeave: function(retval) {
    if (this.flag) // passed from onEnter
      console.warn("\nretval: " + retval);
  }
});
var fds = {}; // for f in /proc/`pidof $APP`/fd/*; do echo $f': 'readlink $f; done
Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, 'open'), {
  onEnter: function (args) {
    var fname = args[0].readCString();
    if (fname.endsWith('.jar')) {
      this.flag = true;
      this.fname = fname;
    }
  },
  onLeave: function (retval) {
    if (this.flag) {
      fds[retval] = this.fname;
    }
  }
});
['read', 'pread', 'readv'].forEach(fnc => {
  Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, fnc), {
    onEnter: function (args) {
      var fd = args[0];
      if (fd in fds)
        console.log(`${fnc}: ${fds[fd]}
	\t${Thread.backtrace(this.context, Backtracer.ACCURATE).map(DebugSymbol.fromAddress).join('\n\t')}`);
    }
  });
});
Output example Intecepting `com.android.chrome`


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Execute shell command

import frida
from frida_tools.application import Reactor
import threading
import click


class Shell(object):
    def __init__(self, argv, env):
        self._stop_requested = threading.Event()
        self._reactor = Reactor(run_until_return=lambda reactor: self._stop_requested.wait())

        self._device = frida.get_usb_device()
        self._sessions = set()

        self._device.on("child-added", lambda child: self._reactor.schedule(lambda: self._on_child_added(child)))
        self._device.on("child-removed", lambda child: self._reactor.schedule(lambda: self._on_child_removed(child)))
        self._device.on("output", lambda pid, fd, data: self._reactor.schedule(lambda: self._on_output(pid, fd, data)))

        self.argv = argv
        self.env = env
        self.output = []  # stdout will pushed into array

    def exec(self):
        self._reactor.schedule(lambda: self._start())
        self._reactor.run()

    def _start(self):
        click.secho("✔ spawn(argv={})".format(self.argv), fg='green', dim=True)
        pid = self._device.spawn(self.argv, env=self.env, stdio='pipe')
        self._instrument(pid)

    def _stop_if_idle(self):
        if len(self._sessions) == 0:
            self._stop_requested.set()

    def _instrument(self, pid):
        click.secho("✔ attach(pid={})".format(pid), fg='green', dim=True)
        session = self._device.attach(pid)
        session.on("detached", lambda reason: self._reactor.schedule(lambda: self._on_detached(pid, session, reason)))
        click.secho("✔ enable_child_gating()", fg='green', dim=True)
        session.enable_child_gating()
        # print("✔ resume(pid={})".format(pid))
        self._device.resume(pid)
        self._sessions.add(session)

    def _on_child_added(self, child):
        click.secho("⚡ child_added: {}".format(child), fg='green', dim=True)
        self._instrument(child.pid)

    @staticmethod
    def _on_child_removed(child):
        click.secho("⚡ child_removed: {}".format(child), fg='green', dim=True)

    def _on_output(self, pid, fd, data):
        # print("⚡ output: pid={}, fd={}, data={}".format(pid, fd, repr(data)))
        # fd=0 (input) fd=1(stdout) fd=2(stderr)
        if fd != 2:
            self.output.append(data)

    def _on_detached(self, pid, session, reason):
        click.secho("⚡ detached: pid={}, reason='{}'".format(pid, reason), fg='green', dim=True)
        self._sessions.remove(session)
        self._reactor.schedule(self._stop_if_idle, delay=0.5)

    @staticmethod
    def _on_message(pid, message):
        click.secho("⚡ message: pid={}, payload={}".format(pid, message), fg='green', dim=True)
Usage example

List directory contents:

def ls(folder):
    cmd = Shell(['/bin/sh', '-c', 'ls -la ' + folder], None)
    cmd.exec()
    for chunk in cmd.output:
        print(chunk.strip().decode())

Pull binary from iOS

cmd = Shell(['/bin/sh', '-c', 'cat /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Example.framework/example'], None)
cmd.exec()
with open('/tmp/example', 'wb+') as f:
    f.writelines(cmd.output)
 # $ file /tmp/example
 # /tmp/example: Mach-O 64-bit 64-bit architecture=12 executable


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List modules

Process.enumerateModulesSync()
    .filter(function(m){ return m['path'].toLowerCase().indexOf('app') !=-1 ; })
    .forEach(function(m) {
        console.log(JSON.stringify(m, null, '  '));
        // to list exports use Module.enumerateExportsSync(m.name)
    });

List modules & exports

sudo frida Process --no-pause --eval 'var x={};Process.enumerateModulesSync().forEach(function(m){x[m.name] = Module.enumerateExportsSync(m.name)});x' -q | less +F
Output example TODO


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Log SQLite query

Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName('libsqlite.so', 'sqlite3_prepare16_v2'), {
      onEnter: function(args) {
          console.log('DB: ' + Memory.readUtf16String(args[0]) + '\tSQL: ' + Memory.readUtf16String(args[1]));
      }
});
Output example TODO


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system property get

Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, '__system_property_get'), {
	onEnter: function (args) {
		this._name = args[0].readCString();
		this._value = args[1];
	},
	onLeave: function (retval) {
		console.log(JSON.stringify({
			result_length: retval,
			name: this._name,
			val: this._value.readCString()
		}));
	}
});
Output example
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.kernel.android.tracing","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.config.hw_log","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.config.hw_module_log","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"ro.debuggable","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"persist.sys.huawei.debug.on","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"ro.logsystem.usertype","val":"6"}
{"result_length":"0x6","name":"ro.board.platform","val":"hi6250"}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"persist.sys.enable_iaware","val":"true"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"persist.sys.cpuset.enable","val":"1"}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"persist.sys.cpuset.subswitch","val":"1272"}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"persist.sys.boost.durationms","val":"1000"}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"persist.sys.boost.isbigcore","val":"true"}
{"result_length":"0x7","name":"persist.sys.boost.freqmin.b","val":"1805000"}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"persist.sys.boost.ipapower","val":"3500"}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"persist.sys.boost.skipframe","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"persist.sys.boost.byeachfling","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"debug.force_rtl","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.hardware.gralloc","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x6","name":"ro.hardware","val":"hi6250"}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.kernel.qemu","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.config.hw_force_rotation","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"persist.fb_auto_alloc","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.config.hw_lock_res_whitelist","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x3","name":"ro.sf.lcd_density","val":"480"}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"persist.sys.dpi","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"persist.sys.rog.width","val":""}
{"result_length":"0x4","name":"dalvik.vm.usejitprofiles","val":"true"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"debug.atrace.tags.enableflags","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"ro.debuggable","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x1","name":"debug.force_rtl","val":"0"}
{"result_length":"0x0","name":"ro.config.hw_lock_res_whitelist","val":""}
....


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Reveal native methods

registerNativeMethods can be used as anti reversing technique to the native .so libraries, e.g. hiding the symbols as much as possible, obfuscating the exported symbols and eventually adding some protection over the JNI bridge. source

var RevealNativeMethods = function() {
  var pSize = Process.pointerSize;
  var env = Java.vm.getEnv();
  var RegisterNatives = 215, FindClassIndex = 6; // search "215" @ https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jni/spec/functions.html
  var jclassAddress2NameMap = {};
  function getNativeAddress(idx) {
    return env.handle.readPointer().add(idx * pSize).readPointer();
  }
  // intercepting FindClass to populate Map<address, jclass>
  Interceptor.attach(getNativeAddress(FindClassIndex), {
    onEnter: function(args) {
      jclassAddress2NameMap[args[0]] = args[1].readCString();
    }
  });
  // RegisterNative(jClass*, .., JNINativeMethod *methods[nMethods], uint nMethods) // https://android.googlesource.com/platform/libnativehelper/+/master/include_jni/jni.h#977
  Interceptor.attach(getNativeAddress(RegisterNatives), {
    onEnter: function(args) {
      for (var i = 0, nMethods = parseInt(args[3]); i < nMethods; i++) {
        /*
          https://android.googlesource.com/platform/libnativehelper/+/master/include_jni/jni.h#129
          typedef struct {
             const char* name;
             const char* signature;
             void* fnPtr;
          } JNINativeMethod;
        */
        var structSize = pSize * 3; // = sizeof(JNINativeMethod)
        var methodsPtr = ptr(args[2]);
        var signature = methodsPtr.add(i * structSize + pSize).readPointer();
        var fnPtr = methodsPtr.add(i * structSize + (pSize * 2)).readPointer(); // void* fnPtr
        var jClass = jclassAddress2NameMap[args[0]].split('/');
	var methodName = methodsPtr.add(i * structSize).readPointer().readCString();
        console.log('\x1b[3' + '6;01' + 'm', JSON.stringify({
          module: DebugSymbol.fromAddress(fnPtr)['moduleName'], // https://www.frida.re/docs/javascript-api/#debugsymbol
          package: jClass.slice(0, -1).join('.'),
          class: jClass[jClass.length - 1],
          method: methodName, // methodsPtr.readPointer().readCString(), // char* name
          signature: signature.readCString(), // char* signature TODO Java bytecode signature parser { Z: 'boolean', B: 'byte', C: 'char', S: 'short', I: 'int', J: 'long', F: 'float', D: 'double', L: 'fully-qualified-class;', '[': 'array' } https://github.com/skylot/jadx/blob/master/jadx-core/src/main/java/jadx/core/dex/nodes/parser/SignatureParser.java
          address: fnPtr
        }), '\x1b[39;49;00m');
      }
    }
  });
}

Java.perform(RevealNativeMethods);

@OldVersion

var fIntercepted = false;

function revealNativeMethods() {
    if (fIntercepted === true) {
        return;
    }
    var jclassAddress2NameMap = {};
    var androidRunTimeSharedLibrary = "libart.so"; // may change between devices
    Module.enumerateSymbolsSync(androidRunTimeSharedLibrary).forEach(function(symbol){
        switch (symbol.name) {
            case "_ZN3art3JNI21RegisterNativeMethodsEP7_JNIEnvP7_jclassPK15JNINativeMethodib":
                /*
                    $ c++filt "_ZN3art3JNI21RegisterNativeMethodsEP7_JNIEnvP7_jclassPK15JNINativeMethodib"
                    art::JNI::RegisterNativeMethods(_JNIEnv*, _jclass*, JNINativeMethod const*, int, bool)
                */
                var RegisterNativeMethodsPtr = symbol.address;
                console.log("RegisterNativeMethods is at " + RegisterNativeMethodsPtr);
                Interceptor.attach(RegisterNativeMethodsPtr, {
                    onEnter: function(args) {
                        var methodsPtr = ptr(args[2]);
                        var methodCount = parseInt(args[3]);
                        for (var i = 0; i < methodCount; i++) {
                            var pSize = Process.pointerSize;
                            /*
                                https://android.googlesource.com/platform/libnativehelper/+/master/include_jni/jni.h#129
                                typedef struct {
                                    const char* name;
                                    const char* signature;
                                    void* fnPtr;
                                } JNINativeMethod;
                            */
                            var structSize = pSize * 3; // JNINativeMethod contains 3 pointers
                            var namePtr = Memory.readPointer(methodsPtr.add(i * structSize));
                            var sigPtr = Memory.readPointer(methodsPtr.add(i * structSize + pSize));
                            var fnPtrPtr = Memory.readPointer(methodsPtr.add(i * structSize + (pSize * 2)));
                            // output schema: className#methodName(arguments)[email protected]
                            console.log(
                                // package & class, replacing forward slash with dot for convenience
                                jclassAddress2NameMap[args[0]].replace(/\//g, '.') +
                                '#' + Memory.readCString(namePtr) + // method
                                Memory.readCString(sigPtr) + // signature (arguments & return type)
                                '@' + fnPtrPtr // C side address
                            );
                        }
                    },
                    onLeave: function (ignoredReturnValue) {}
                });
                break;
            case "_ZN3art3JNI9FindClassEP7_JNIEnvPKc": // art::JNI::FindClass
                Interceptor.attach(symbol.address, {
                    onEnter: function(args) {
                        if (args[1] != null) {
                            jclassAddress2NameMap[args[0]] = Memory.readCString(args[1]);
                        }
                    },
                    onLeave: function (ignoredReturnValue) {}
                });
                break;
        }
    });
    fIntercepted = true;
}

Java.perform(revealNativeMethods);
Output example
$ frida -Uf com.google.android.apps.photos --no-pause -l script.js
{"class":"org/chromium/net/GURLUtils","method":"nativeGetOrigin","signature":"(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/String;","address":"0x..da910"}
..


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Log method arguments

def on_message(m, _data):
    if m['type'] == 'send':
        print(m['payload'])
    elif m['type'] == 'error':
        print(m)


def switch(argument_key, idx):
    """
    c/c++ variable type to javascript reader switch implementation
    # TODO handle other arguments, [long, longlong..]
    :param argument_key: variable type
    :param idx: index in symbols array
    :return: javascript to read the type of variable
    """
    argument_key = argument_key.replace(' ', '')
    return '%d: %s' % (idx, {
        'int': 'args[%d].toInt32(),',
        'unsignedint': 'args[%d].toInt32(),',
        'std::string': 'Memory.readUtf8String(Memory.readPointer(args[%d])),',
        'bool': 'Boolean(args[%d]),'
    }[argument_key] % idx)


def list_symbols_from_object_files(module_id):
    import subprocess
    return subprocess.getoutput('nm --demangle --dynamic %s' % module_id)


def parse_nm_output(nm_stdout, symbols):
    for line in nm_stdout.splitlines():
        split = line.split()
        open_parenthesis_idx = line.find('(')
        raw_arguments = [] if open_parenthesis_idx == -1 else line[open_parenthesis_idx + 1:-1]
        if len(raw_arguments) > 0:  # ignore methods without arguments
            raw_argument_list = raw_arguments.split(',')
            symbols.append({
                'address': split[0],
                'type': split[1],  # @see Symbol Type Table
                'name': split[2][:split[2].find('(')],  # method name
                'args': raw_argument_list
            })


def get_js_script(method, module_id):
    js_script = """
        var moduleName = "{{moduleName}}", nativeFuncAddr = {{methodAddress}};
        Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, "dlopen"), {
            onEnter: function(args) {
                this.lib = Memory.readUtf8String(args[0]);
                console.log("[*] dlopen called with: " + this.lib);
            },
            onLeave: function(retval) {
                if (this.lib.endsWith(moduleName)) {
                    Interceptor.attach(Module.findBaseAddress(moduleName).add(nativeFuncAddr), {
                        onEnter: function(args) {
                            console.log("[*] hook invoked", JSON.stringify({{arguments}}, null, '\t'));
                        }
                    });
                }
            }
        });
    """
    replace_map = {
        '{{moduleName}}': module_id,
        '{{methodAddress}}': '0x' + method['address'],
        '{{arguments}}': '{' + ''.join([switch(method['args'][i], i + 1) for i in range(len(method['args']))]) + '}'
    }
    for k, v in replace_map.items():
        js_script = js_script.replace(k, v)
    print('[+] JS Script:\n', js_script)
    return js_script


def main(app_id, module_id, method):
    """
    $ python3.x+ script.py --method SomeClass::someMethod --app com.company.app --module libfoo.so
    :param app_id: application identifier / bundle id 
    :param module_id: shared object identifier / known suffix, will iterate loaded modules (@see dlopen) 
    :param method: method/symbol name
    :return: hook native method and print arguments when invoked
    """
    # TODO extract all app's modules via `adb shell -c 'ls -lR /data/app/' + app_if + '*' | grep "\.so"`

    nm_stdout = list_symbols_from_object_files(module_id)

    symbols = []
    parse_nm_output(nm_stdout, symbols)

    selection_idx = None
    for idx, symbol in enumerate(symbols):
        if method is None:  # if --method flag is not passed
            print("%4d) %s (%d)" % (idx, symbol['name'], len(symbol['args'])))
        elif method == symbol['name']:
            selection_idx = idx
            break
    if selection_idx is None:
        if method is None:
            selection_idx = input("Enter symbol number: ")
        else:
            print('[+] Method not found, remove method flag to get list of methods to select from, `nm` stdout:')
            print(nm_stdout)
            exit(2)

    method = symbols[int(selection_idx)]
    print('[+] Selected method: %s' % method['name'])
    print('[+] Method arguments: %s' % method['args'])

    from frida import get_usb_device
    device = get_usb_device()
    pid = device.spawn([app_id])
    session = device.attach(pid)
    script = session.create_script(get_js_script(method, module_id))
    script.on('message', on_message)
    script.load()
    device.resume(app_id)
    # keep hook alive
    from sys import stdin
    stdin.read()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    from argparse import ArgumentParser
    parser = ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument('--app', help='app identifier "com.company.app"')
    parser.add_argument('--module', help='loaded module name "libfoo.2.so"')
    parser.add_argument('--method', help='method name "SomeClass::someMethod", if empty it will print select-list')
    args = parser.parse_args()
    main(args.app, args.module, args.method)

Symbol Type Table
    "A" The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by further linking.
    "B" The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as BSS).
    "C" The symbol is common.  Common symbols are uninitialized data.
       When linking, multiple common symbols may appear	with the same name.  
       If the symbol is defined anywhere, the common symbols are treated as undefined	references.
    "D" The symbol is in the initialized data section.
    "G" The symbol is in an initialized data section for small objects.
       Some object file formats permit more efficient access to small data objects, such as a global int variable as 
       opposed to a large global array.
    "I" The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol.
       This is a GNU extension to the a.out object file format which is rarely used.
    "N" The symbol is a debugging symbol.
    "R" The symbol is in a read only data section.
    "S" The symbol is in an uninitialized data section for small objects.
    "T" The symbol is in the text (code) section.
    "U" The symbol is undefined.
    "V" The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal defined symbol, 
        the normal defined symbol is used with no error.  
        When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak symbol becomes 
        zero with no error.
    "W" The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically tagged as a weak object symbol. 
        When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal defined symbol, 
        the normal defined symbol is used with no error.  
        When a weak undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the symbol is determined 
        in a system-specific manner without error.  
        On some systems, uppercase indicates that a default value has been specified.
    "-" The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file.  
        In this case, the next values printed are the stabs other field, the stabs desc field, and the stab type.  
        Stabs symbols are used to hold debugging information.
    "?" The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.


⬆ Back to top

Enumerate loaded classes

And save to a file named pkg.classes

$ frida -U com.pkg -qe 'Java.perform(function(){Java.enumerateLoadedClasses({"onMatch":function(c){console.log(c);}});});' -o pkg.classes
Output example TODO


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Class description

Get class methods & members.

Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Java.use('com.company.CustomClass').__proto__).join('\n\t')

If there is a name collision, method & member has the same name, an underscore will be added to member. source

	let fieldJsName = env.stringFromJni(fieldName);
	while (jsMethods.hasOwnProperty(fieldJsName)) {
		fieldJsName = '_' + fieldJsName;
	}
Output example TODO


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Turn Wifi OFF

It will turn WiFi off on the creation of the first Acivity.

var WifiManager = Java.use("android.net.wifi.WifiManager");
Java.use("android.app.Activity").onCreate.overload("android.os.Bundle").implementation = function(bundle) {
    var wManager = Java.cast(this.getSystemService("wifi"), WifiManager);
    console.log('isWifiEnabled ?', wManager.isWifiEnabled());
    wManager.setWifiEnabled(false);
    this.$init(bundle);
}
Output example TODO


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Set proxy

It will set a system-wide proxy using the supplied IP address and port.

var ActivityThread      = Java.use('android.app.ActivityThread');
var ConnectivityManager = Java.use('android.net.ConnectivityManager');
var ProxyInfo           = Java.use('android.net.ProxyInfo');

var proxyInfo           = ProxyInfo.$new('192.168.1.10', 8080, ''); // change to null in order to disable the proxy.
var context = ActivityThread.currentApplication().getApplicationContext();
var connectivityManager = Java.cast(context.getSystemService('connectivity'), ConnectivityManager);
connectivityManager.setGlobalProxy(proxyInfo);
Output example TODO


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Get IMEI

Can also hook & change IMEI.

function getIMEI(){
    console.log('IMEI =', Java.use("android.telephony.TelephonyManager").$new().getDeviceId());
}
Java.perform(getIMEI)
Output example TODO


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Hook io InputStream

Hook InputputStream & print buffer as ascii with char limit & exclude list.

function binaryToHexToAscii(array, readLimit) {
    var result = [];
    // read 100 bytes #performance
    readLimit = readLimit || 100;
    for (var i = 0; i < readLimit; ++i) {
        result.push(String.fromCharCode( // hex2ascii part
            parseInt(
                ('0' + (array[i] & 0xFF).toString(16)).slice(-2), // binary2hex part
                16
            )
        ));
    }
    return result.join('');
}

function hookInputStream() {
    Java.use('java.io.InputStream')['read'].overload('[B').implementation = function(b) {
        // execute original and save return value
        var retval = this.read(b);
        var resp = binaryToHexToAscii(b);
        // conditions to not print garbage packets
        var reExcludeList = new RegExp(['Mmm'/*, 'Ping' /*, ' Yo'*/].join('|'));
        if ( ! reExcludeList.test(resp) ) {
            console.log(resp);
        }
        var reIncludeList = new RegExp(['AAA', 'BBB', 'CCC'].join('|')); 
        if ( reIncludeList.test(resp) ) {
            send( binaryToHexToAscii(b, 1200) );
        }
        return retval;
    };
}

Java.perform(hookInputStream);
Output example TODO


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Android make Toast

// 0 = // https://developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast#LENGTH_LONG
Java.scheduleOnMainThread(() => {
  Java.use("android.widget.Toast")
    .makeText(Java.use("android.app.ActivityThread").currentApplication().getApplicationContext(), Java.Use("java.lang.StringBuilder").$new("Text to Toast here"), 0).show();
});
Output example TODO

[⬆ Back to top](#table-of-contents)

Await for condition

Await until specific DLL will load in Unity app, can implement hot swap.

var awaitForCondition = function(callback) {
    var int = setInterval(function() {
        if (Module.findExportByName(null, "mono_get_root_domain")) {
            clearInterval(int);
            callback();
            return;
        }
    }, 0);
}

function hook() {
    Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, "mono_assembly_load_from_full"), {
        onEnter: function(args) {
            this._dll = Memory.readUtf8String(ptr(args[1]));
            console.log('[*]', this._dll);
        },
        onLeave: function(retval) {          
            if (this._dll.endsWith("Assembly-CSharp.dll")) {
                console.log(JSON.stringify({
                    retval: retval,
                    name: this._dll
                }, null, 2));
            }
        }
    });
}
Java.perform(awaitForCondition(hook));
Output example TODO


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Webview URLS

Log whenever WebView switch URL.

Java.use("android.webkit.WebView").loadUrl.overload("java.lang.String").implementation = function (s) {
    send(s.toString());
    this.loadUrl.overload("java.lang.String").call(this, s);
};
Output example TODO


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Print runtime strings

Hoooking toString of StringBuilder/Buffer & printing stacktrace.

Java.perform(function() {
  ['java.lang.StringBuilder', 'java.lang.StringBuffer'].forEach(function(clazz, i) {
    console.log('[?] ' + i + ' = ' + clazz);
    var func = 'toString';
    Java.use(clazz)[func].implementation = function() {
      var ret = this[func]();
      if (ret.indexOf('') != -1) {
        // print stacktrace if return value contains specific string
        Java.perform(function() {
          var jAndroidLog = Java.use("android.util.Log"), jException = Java.use("java.lang.Exception");
          console.log( jAndroidLog.getStackTraceString( jException.$new() ) );
        }); 
      }   
      send('[' + i + '] ' + ret);
      return ret;
    }   
  }); 
});
Output example TODO


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String comparison

Java.perform(function() {
    var str = Java.use('java.lang.String'), objectClass = 'java.lang.Object';
    str.equals.overload(objectClass).implementation = function(obj) {
        var response = str.equals.overload(objectClass).call(this, obj);
        if (obj) {
            if (obj.toString().length > 5) {
                send(str.toString.call(this) + ' == ' + obj.toString() + ' ? ' + response);
            }
        }
        return response;
    }
});
Output example TODO


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Hook JNI by address

Hook native method by module name and method address and print arguments.

var moduleName = "libfoo.so"; 
var nativeFuncAddr = 0x1234; // $ nm --demangle --dynamic libfoo.so | grep "Class::method("

Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(null, "dlopen"), {
    onEnter: function(args) {
        this.lib = Memory.readUtf8String(args[0]);
        console.log("dlopen called with: " + this.lib);
    },
    onLeave: function(retval) {
        if (this.lib.endsWith(moduleName)) {
            console.log("ret: " + retval);
            var baseAddr = Module.findBaseAddress(moduleName);
            Interceptor.attach(baseAddr.add(nativeFuncAddr), {
                onEnter: function(args) {
                    console.log("[-] hook invoked");
                    console.log(JSON.stringify({
                        a1: args[1].toInt32(),
                        a2: Memory.readUtf8String(Memory.readPointer(args[2])),
                        a3: Boolean(args[3])
                    }, null, '\t'));
                }
            });
        }
    }
});
Output example TODO


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Hook constructor

Java.use('java.lang.StringBuilder').$init.overload('java.lang.String').implementation = function(stringArgument) {
      console.log("c'tor");
      return this.$init(stringArgument);
};
Output example TODO


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Hook reflection

java.lang.reflect.Method#invoke(Object obj, Object... args, boolean bool)

  Java.use('java.lang.reflect.Method').invoke.overload('java.lang.Object', '[Ljava.lang.Object;', 'boolean').implementation = function(a,b,c) {
      console.log('hooked!', a, b, c);
      return this.invoke(a,b,c);
  };
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

Trace class

Tracing class method, with pretty colors and options to print as JSON & stacktrace.

TODO add trace for c'tor.

var Color = {
    RESET: "\x1b[39;49;00m", Black: "0;01", Blue: "4;01", Cyan: "6;01", Gray: "7;11", Green: "2;01", Purple: "5;01", Red: "1;01", Yellow: "3;01",
    Light: {
        Black: "0;11", Blue: "4;11", Cyan: "6;11", Gray: "7;01", Green: "2;11", Purple: "5;11", Red: "1;11", Yellow: "3;11"
    }
};

/**
 *
 * @param input. 
 *      If an object is passed it will print as json 
 * @param kwargs  options map {
 *     -l level: string;   log/warn/error
 *     -i indent: boolean;     print JSON prettify
 *     -c color: @see ColorMap
 * }
 */
var LOG = function (input, kwargs) {
    kwargs = kwargs || {};
    var logLevel = kwargs['l'] || 'log', colorPrefix = '\x1b[3', colorSuffix = 'm';
    if (typeof input === 'object')
        input = JSON.stringify(input, null, kwargs['i'] ? 2 : null);
    if (kwargs['c'])
        input = colorPrefix + kwargs['c'] + colorSuffix + input + Color.RESET;
    console[logLevel](input);
};

var printBacktrace = function () {
    Java.perform(function() {
        var android_util_Log = Java.use('android.util.Log'), java_lang_Exception = Java.use('java.lang.Exception');
        // getting stacktrace by throwing an exception
        LOG(android_util_Log.getStackTraceString(java_lang_Exception.$new()), { c: Color.Gray });
    });
};

function traceClass(targetClass) {
    var hook;
    try {
        hook = Java.use(targetClass);
    } catch (e) {
        console.error("trace class failed", e);
        return;
    }

    var methods = hook.class.getDeclaredMethods();
    hook.$dispose();

    var parsedMethods = [];
    methods.forEach(function (method) {
        var methodStr = method.toString();
        var methodReplace = methodStr.replace(targetClass + ".", "TOKEN").match(/\sTOKEN(.*)\(/)[1];
         parsedMethods.push(methodReplace);
    });

    uniqBy(parsedMethods, JSON.stringify).forEach(function (targetMethod) {
        traceMethod(targetClass + '.' + targetMethod);
    });
}

function traceMethod(targetClassMethod) {
    var delim = targetClassMethod.lastIndexOf('.');
    if (delim === -1)
        return;

    var targetClass = targetClassMethod.slice(0, delim);
    var targetMethod = targetClassMethod.slice(delim + 1, targetClassMethod.length);

    var hook = Java.use(targetClass);
    var overloadCount = hook[targetMethod].overloads.length;

    LOG({ tracing: targetClassMethod, overloaded: overloadCount }, { c: Color.Green });

    for (var i = 0; i < overloadCount; i++) {
        hook[targetMethod].overloads[i].implementation = function () {
            var log = { '#': targetClassMethod, args: [] };

            for (var j = 0; j < arguments.length; j++) {
                var arg = arguments[j];
                // quick&dirty fix for java.io.StringWriter char[].toString() impl because frida prints [object Object]
                if (j === 0 && arguments[j]) {
                    if (arguments[j].toString() === '[object Object]') {
                        var s = [];
                        for (var k = 0, l = arguments[j].length; k < l; k++) {
                            s.push(arguments[j][k]);
                        }
                        arg = s.join('');
                    }
                }
                log.args.push({ i: j, o: arg, s: arg ? arg.toString(): 'null'});
            }

            var retval;
            try {
                retval = this[targetMethod].apply(this, arguments); // might crash (Frida bug?)
                log.returns = { val: retval, str: retval ? retval.toString() : null };
            } catch (e) {
                console.error(e);
            }
            LOG(log, { c: Color.Blue });
            return retval;
        }
    }
}

// remove duplicates from array
function uniqBy(array, key) {
    var seen = {};
    return array.filter(function (item) {
        var k = key(item);
        return seen.hasOwnProperty(k) ? false : (seen[k] = true);
    });
}


var Main = function() {
    Java.perform(function () { // avoid java.lang.ClassNotFoundException
        [
            // "java.io.File",
            'java.net.Socket'
        ].forEach(traceClass);

        Java.use('java.net.Socket').isConnected.overload().implementation = function () {
            LOG('Socket.isConnected.overload', { c: Color.Light.Cyan });
            printBacktrace();
            return true;
        }
    });
};

Java.perform(Main);


Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

Get Android ID

The ANDROID_ID is unique in each application in Android.

function getContext() {
  return Java.use('android.app.ActivityThread').currentApplication().getApplicationContext().getContentResolver();
}

function logAndroidId() {
  console.log('[-]', Java.use('android.provider.Settings$Secure').getString(getContext(), 'android_id'));
}
Output example https://stackoverflow.com/a/54818023/2655092


⬆ Back to top

Change location

Java.perform(() => {
	var Location = Java.use('android.location.Location');
	Location.getLatitude.implementation = function() {
		return LATITUDE;
	}
	Location.getLongitude.implementation = function() {
		return LONGITUDE;
	}
})
Output example TODO


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Bypass FLAG_SECURE

Bypass screenshot prevention stackoverflow question

Java.perform(function() {
    Java.use('android.view.SurfaceView').setSecure.overload('boolean').implementation = function(flag){
        console.log('[1] flag:', flag);
        this.call(false);
    };
    var LayoutParams = Java.use('android.view.WindowManager$LayoutParams');
    Java.use('android.view.ViewWindow').setFlags.overload('int', 'int').implementation = function(flags, mask){
        console.log('flag secure: ', LayoutParams.FLAG_SECURE.value);
        console.log('before:', flags);
        flags = (flags.value & ~LayoutParams.FLAG_SECURE.value);
        console.log('after:', flags);
        this.call(this, flags, mask);
    };
});
Output example https://stackoverflow.com/a/54818023/2655092


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Shared Preferences update

function notifyNewSharedPreference() {
  Java.use('android.app.SharedPreferencesImpl$EditorImpl').putString.overload('java.lang.String', 'java.lang.String').implementation = function(k, v) {
    console.log('[SharedPreferencesImpl]', k, '=', v);
    return this.putString(k, v);
  }
}
Output example TODO


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Hook overloads

function hookOverloads(className, func) {
  var clazz = Java.use(className);
  var overloads = clazz[func].overloads;
  for (var i in overloads) {
    if (overloads[i].hasOwnProperty('argumentTypes')) {
      var parameters = [];

      var curArgumentTypes = overloads[i].argumentTypes, args = [], argLog = '[';
      for (var j in curArgumentTypes) {
        var cName = curArgumentTypes[j].className;
        parameters.push(cName);
        argLog += "'(" + cName + ") ' + v" + j + ",";
        args.push('v' + j);
      }
      argLog += ']';

      var script = "var ret = this." + func + '(' + args.join(',') + ") || '';\n"
        + "console.log(JSON.stringify(" + argLog + "));\n"
        + "return ret;"

      args.push(script);
      clazz[func].overload.apply(this, parameters).implementation = Function.apply(null, args);
    }
  }
}

Java.perform(function() {
  hookOverloads('java.lang.StringBuilder', '$init');
})
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

Register broadcast receiver

Java.perform(() => {
    const MyBroadcastReceiver = Java.registerClass({
        name: 'MyBroadcastReceiver',
        superClass: Java.use('android.content.BroadcastReceiver'),
        methods: {
            onReceive: [{
                returnType: 'void',
                argumentTypes: ['android.content.Context', 'android.content.Intent'],
                implementation: function(context, intent) {
                    // ..
                }
            }]
        },
    });
    let ctx = Java.use('android.app.ActivityThread').currentApplication().getApplicationContext();
    ctx.registerReceiver(MyBroadcastReceiver.$new(), Java.use('android.content.IntentFilter').$new('com.example.JAVA_TO_AGENT'));
});
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

OS Log

var m = 'libsystem_trace.dylib';
// bool os_log_type_enabled(os_log_t oslog, os_log_type_t type);
var isEnabledFunc = Module.findExportByName(m, 'os_log_type_enabled');
// _os_log_impl(void *dso, os_log_t log, os_log_type_t type, const char *format, uint8_t *buf, unsigned int size);
var logFunc = Module.findExportByName(m, '_os_log_impl');

// Enable all logs
Interceptor.attach(isEnabledFunc, {
  onLeave: function (ret) {
    ret.replace(0x1);
  }
});

Interceptor.attach(logFunc, {
  onEnter: function (a) {
/*
OS_ENUM(os_log_type, uint8_t,
	OS_LOG_TYPE_DEFAULT = 0x00,
	OS_LOG_TYPE_INFO    = 0x01,
	OS_LOG_TYPE_DEBUG   = 0x02,
	OS_LOG_TYPE_ERROR   = 0x10,
	OS_LOG_TYPE_FAULT   = 0x11);
*/
    var type = a[2]; 
    var format = a[3];
    if (type !== 0x2) {
      console.log(JSON.stringify({
        type: type,
        format: format.readCString(),
        //buf: a[4].readPointer().readCString() // TODO
      }, null, 2));
    }
  }
})
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

iOS alert box

var UIAlertController = ObjC.classes.UIAlertController;
var UIAlertAction = ObjC.classes.UIAlertAction;
var UIApplication = ObjC.classes.UIApplication;
var handler = new ObjC.Block({ retType: 'void', argTypes: ['object'], implementation: function () {} });

ObjC.schedule(ObjC.mainQueue, function () {
  var alert = UIAlertController.alertControllerWithTitle_message_preferredStyle_('Frida', 'Hello from Frida', 1);
  var defaultAction = UIAlertAction.actionWithTitle_style_handler_('OK', 0, handler);
  alert.addAction_(defaultAction);
  // Instead of using `ObjC.choose()` and looking for UIViewController instances on the heap, we have direct access through UIApplication:
  UIApplication.sharedApplication().keyWindow().rootViewController().presentViewController_animated_completion_(alert, true, NULL);
})
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

File Access

Log each file open

Interceptor.attach(ObjC.classes.NSFileManager['- fileExistsAtPath:'].implementation, {
    onEnter: function (args) {
        console.log('open' , ObjC.Object(args[2]).toString());
    }
});
Output example TODO


⬆ Back to top

Observe class

function observeClass(name) {
    var k = ObjC.classes[name];
    k.$ownMethods.forEach(function(m) {
        var impl = k[m].implementation;
        console.log('Observing ' + name + ' ' + m);
        Interceptor.attach(impl, {
            onEnter: function(a) {
                this.log = [];
                this.log.push('(' + a[0] + ',' + Memory.readUtf8String(a[1]) + ') ' + name + ' ' + m);
                if (m.indexOf(':') !== -1) {
                    var params = m.split(':');
                    params[0] = params[0].split(' ')[1];
                    for (var i = 0; i < params.length - 1; i++) {
                        try {
                            this.log.push(params[i] + ': ' + new ObjC.Object(a[2 + i]).toString());
                        } catch (e) {
                            this.log.push(params[i] + ': ' + a[2 + i].toString());
                        }
                    }
                }

                this.log.push(
                    Thread.backtrace(this.context, Backtracer.ACCURATE)
                        .map(DebugSymbol.fromAddress)
                        .join('\n')
                );
            },

            onLeave: function(r) {
                try {
                    this.log.push('RET: ' + new ObjC.Object(r).toString());
                } catch (e) {
                    this.log.push('RET: ' + r.toString());
                }

                console.log(this.log.join('\n') + '\n');
            }
        });
    });
}
Output example

observeClass('Someclass$innerClass');

Observing Someclass$innerClass - func
Observing Someclass$innerClass - empty
(0x174670040,parameterName) Someclass$innerClass - func
0x10048dd6c libfoo!0x3bdd6c
0x1005a5dd0 libfoo!0x4d5dd0
0x1832151c0 libdispatch.dylib!_dispatch_client_callout
0x183215fb4 libdispatch.dylib!dispatch_once_f
RET: 0xabcdef


⬆ Back to top

Find iOS application UUID

Get UUID for specific path when attached to an app by reading plist file under each app container.

var PLACEHOLDER = '{UUID}';
function extractUUIDfromPath(path) {
    var bundleIdentifier = String(ObjC.classes.NSBundle.mainBundle().objectForInfoDictionaryKey_('CFBundleIdentifier'));
    var path_prefix = path.substr(0, path.indexOf(PLACEHOLDER));
    var plist_metadata = '/.com.apple.mobile_container_manager.metadata.plist';
    var errorPtr = Memory.alloc(Process.pointerSize); 
    Memory.writePointer(errorPtr, NULL); 
    var folders = ObjC.classes.NSFileManager.defaultManager().contentsOfDirectoryAtPath_error_(path_prefix, errorPtr);
    var error = Memory.readPointer(errorPtr);
    if (errorPtr) 
    	console.error( new ObjC.Object( error ) );
    for (var i = 0, l = folders.count(); i < l; i++) {
        var uuid = folders.objectAtIndex_(i);
        var metadata = path_prefix + uuid + plist_metadata;
        var dict = ObjC.classes.NSMutableDictionary.alloc().initWithContentsOfFile_(metadata);
        var enumerator = dict.keyEnumerator();
        var key;
        while ((key = enumerator.nextObject()) !== null) {
            if (key == 'MCMMetadataIdentifier') {
                var appId = String(dict.objectForKey_(key));
                if (appId.indexOf(bundleIdentifier) != -1) {
                    return path.replace(PLACEHOLDER, uuid);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
console.log( extractUUIDfromPath('/var/mobile/Containers/Data/Application/' + PLACEHOLDER + '/Documents') );
Output example TODO


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Extract cookies

var cookieJar = {};
var cookies = ObjC.classes.NSHTTPCookieStorage.sharedHTTPCookieStorage().cookies();
for (var i = 0, l = cookies.count(); i < l; i++) {
  var cookie = cookies['- objectAtIndex:'](i);
  cookieJar[cookie.Name()] = cookie.Value().toString(); // ["- expiresDate"]().toString()
}
console.log(JSON.stringify(cookieJar, null, 2));
Output example ```js { "key1": "value 1", "key2": "value 2" } ```


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Describe class members

Print map of members (with values) for each class instance

ObjC.choose(ObjC.classes[clazz], {
  onMatch: function (obj) {
    console.log('onMatch: ', obj);
    Object.keys(obj.$ivars).forEach(function(v) {
        console.log('\t', v, '=', obj.$ivars[v]);
    });
  },
  onComplete: function () {
    console.log('onComplete', arguments.length);
  }
});
Output example TODO


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Class hierarchy

Object.keys(ObjC.classes) will list all available Objective C classes, but actually this will return all classes loaded in current process, including system frameworks. If we want something like weak_classdump, to list classes from executable it self only, Objective C runtime already provides such function objc_copyClassNamesForImage

var objc_copyClassNamesForImage = new NativeFunction(
    Module.findExportByName(null, 'objc_copyClassNamesForImage'),
    'pointer',
    ['pointer', 'pointer']
);
var free = new NativeFunction(Module.findExportByName(null, 'free'), 'void', ['pointer']);
var classes = new Array(count);
var p = Memory.alloc(Process.pointerSize);

Memory.writeUInt(p, 0);

var path = ObjC.classes.NSBundle.mainBundle().executablePath().UTF8String();
var pPath = Memory.allocUtf8String(path);
var pClasses = objc_copyClassNamesForImage(pPath, p);
var count = Memory.readUInt(p);
for (var i = 0; i < count; i++) {
    var pClassName = Memory.readPointer(pClasses.add(i * Process.pointerSize));
    classes[i] = Memory.readUtf8String(pClassName);
}

free(pClasses);

var tree = {};
classes.forEach(function(name) {
    var clazz = ObjC.classes[name];
    var chain = [name];
    while (clazz = clazz.$superClass) {
        chain.unshift(clazz.$className);
    }

    var node = tree;
    chain.forEach(function(clazz) {
        node[clazz] = node[clazz] || {};
        node = node[clazz];
    });
});

send(tree);
Output example TODO


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Hook refelaction

Hooking objc_msgSend

import frida, sys

f = open('/tmp/log', 'w')    

def on_message(msg, _data):
    f.write(msg['payload']+'\n')

frida_script = """
  Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName('/usr/lib/libobjc.A.dylib', 'objc_msgSend'), {
    onEnter: function(args) {
     var m = Memory.readCString(args[1]);
     if (m != 'length' && !m.startsWith('_fastC'))
        send(m);
    }
  });
"""
device = frida.get_usb_device()
pid = device.spawn(["com.example"]) # or .get_frontmost_application()
session = device.attach(pid)
script = session.create_script(frida_script)
script.on('message', on_message)
script.load()
device.resume(pid)
sys.stdin.read()
$ sort /tmp/log | uniq -c | sort -n
Output example TODO


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Intercept Entire Module

To reduce UI related functions I ues the following steps:

  1. Output log to a file using -o /tmp/log1
  2. Copy MRU to excludesList using $ sort /tmp/log1 | uniq -c | sort -rn | head -n20 | cut -d# -f2 | paste -sd "," -
var mName = 'MyModule', excludeList = ['Alot', 'Of', 'UI', 'Related', 'Functions'];
Module.enumerateExportsSync(mName)
  .filter(function(e) {
    var fromTypeFunction = e.type == 'function';·
    var notInExcludes = excludeList.indexOf(e.name) == -1;
    return fromTypeFunction && notInExcludes;
  })
  .forEach(function(e) {
    Interceptor.attach(Module.findExportByName(mName, e.name), {
      onEnter: function(args) {
        console.log(mName + "#'" + e.name + "'");
      }
    })
  })
Output example TODO


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Dump memory segments

Process.enumerateRanges('rw-', {
	onMatch: function (range) {
		var fname = `/sdcard/${range.base}_dump`;
		var f = new File(fname, 'wb');
		f.write(instance.base.readByteArray(instance.size));
		f.flush();
		f.close();
		console.log(`base=${range.base} size=${range.size} prot=${range.protection} fname=${fname}`);
	},
	onComplete: function () {}
});
Output example TODO


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Memory scan

function memscan(str) {
	Process.enumerateModulesSync().filter(m => m.path.startsWith('/data')).forEach(m => {
		var pattern = str.split('').map(letter => letter.charCodeAt(0).toString(16)).join(' ');
		try {
			var res = Memory.scanSync(m.base, m.size, pattern);
			if (res.length > 0)
				console.log(JSON.stringify({m, res}));
		} catch (e) {
			console.warn(e);
		}
	});
}
var memscn = function (str) {
	Process.enumerateModulesSync().forEach(function (m) {
		var pattern = str.split('').map(function (l) { return l.charCodeAt(0).toString(16) }).join(' ');
		try {
			var res = Memory.scanSync(m.base, m.size, pattern);
			if (res.length > 0)
				console.log(JSON.stringify({m, res}, null , 2));
		} catch (e) {
			console.warn(e);
		}
	});
}
Output example pattern [ 52 41 4e 44 4f 4d ] { "name": "Test", "base": "0x1048fc000", "size": 147000, "path": "/var/containers/Bundle/Application/CD74EB00-9D90-4600-BF5D-F6E5E0CDF878/Test.app/Test" } [{"address":"0x10491f211","size":6}]


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Stalker

  var _module = Process.findModuleByName('myModule');
  var base = ptr(_module.base);
  var startTraceOffset = 0xabcd1234, numInstructionsToTrace = 50;
  var startTrace = base.add(startTraceOffset), endTrace = startTrace.add(4 * (numInstructionsToTrace - 1));
  
  Interceptor.attach(ObjC.classes.CustomClass['- func'].implementation, {
    onEnter: function (args) {
      var tid = Process.getCurrentThreadId();
      this.tid = tid;
      console.warn(`onEnter [ ${tid} ]`);     
      Stalker.follow(tid, {
        transform: function (iterator) {
          var instruction;
          while ((instruction = iterator.next()) !== null) {
            // condition to putCallout
	    if (instruction.address <= endTrace && instruction.address >= startTrace) {     
	      // print instruction & registers values
              iter.putCallout(function(context) {
                var offset = ptr(context.pc).sub(base);
                var inst = Instruction.parse(context.pc).toString();
                var modified_inst = inst;
                inst.replace(/,/g, '').split(' ').forEach(op => {
                  if (op.startsWith('x'))
                    modified_inst = modified_inst.replace(op, context[op]);
                  else if (op.startsWith('w'))
                    modified_inst = modified_inst.replace(op, context[op.replace('w', 'x')]);
                });
                modified_inst = '\x1b[35;01m' + modified_inst + '\x1b[0m';
                console.log(`x8=${context.x8} x25=${context.x25} x0=${context.x0} x21=${context.x21}`)
                console.log(`${offset} ${inst} # ${modified_inst}`);
              });
	    }
	    iterator.keep();
          }
        }
      })
    },  
    onLeave: function (retval) {
      console.log(`onLeave [ ${this.tid} ]`);
      // cleanup
      Stalker.unfollow(this.tid);
      Stalker.garbageCollect();
    }   
  })  
Output example mul x5, x2, x21 # mul 0x3, 0x4, 0x5


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Device properties

Example of quick&dirty iOS device properties extraction

var UIDevice = ObjC.classes.UIDevice.currentDevice();
UIDevice.$ownMethods
  .filter(function(method) { 
    return method.indexOf(':') == -1 /* filter out methods with parameters */
       && method.indexOf('+') == -1 /* filter out public methods */
  })
  .forEach(function(method) { 
    console.log(method, ':', UIDevice[method]())
  })
console.log('executablePath =', ObjC.classes.NSBundle.mainBundle().executablePath().toString());

Output example
- adjTrackingEnabled : true
- adjFbAttributionId : 
- adjVendorId : 4AAAAAAA-CECC-4BBB-BDDD-DEEEEEEEED18
- adjDeviceType : iPhone
- adjDeviceName : iPhone8,2
- adjCreateUuid : dfaaaa2-ebbd-4ccc-addd-eaeeeeeeee7c
- adjIdForAdvertisers : 7AAAAA3A-4BBB-4CCC-BDDD-0EEEEEEEE8A6
- sbf_bannerGraphicsQuality : 100 
- sbf_controlCenterGraphicsQuality : 100 
- sbf_homeScreenFolderGraphicsQuality : 100 
- sbf_searchTransitionGraphicsQuality : 100 
- sbf_dashBoardPresentationGraphicsQuality : 100 
- sbf_homeScreenBlurGraphicsQuality : 100 
- userInterfaceIdiom : 0 
- _supportsDeepColor : false
- name : iPhone
- _keyboardGraphicsQuality : 100 
- isGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications : true
- orientation : 1 
- _backlightLevel : 1 
- isProximityMonitoringEnabled : false
- systemVersion : 11.1.1
- _graphicsQuality : 100 
- beginGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications : undefined
- endGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications : undefined
- buildVersion : 15C222
- systemName : iOS 
- _isSystemSoundEnabled : true
- _feedbackSupportLevel : 1 
- model : iPhone
- _supportsForceTouch : true
- localizedModel : iPhone
- identifierForVendor : 4A7B44DB-AAAA-BBB-CCC-D8819581DDD
- isBatteryMonitoringEnabled : false
- batteryState : 0 
- batteryLevel : -1
- proximityState : false
- isMultitaskingSupported : true
- playInputClick : undefined
- _softwareDimmingAlpha : 0 
- _playInputSelectSound : undefined
- _playInputDeleteSound : undefined
- _hasGraphicsQualityOverride : false
- _hasTouchPad : false
- _clearGraphicsQualityOverride : undefined
- _predictionGraphicsQuality : 100 
- _nativeScreenGamut : 0 
- _tapticEngine : <_UITapticEngine: 0x1c06257c0>


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Take screenshot

function screenshot() {
  ObjC.schedule(ObjC.mainQueue, function() {
    var getNativeFunction = function (ex, retVal, args) {
      return new NativeFunction(Module.findExportByName('UIKit', ex), retVal, args);
    };
    var api = {
      UIWindow: ObjC.classes.UIWindow,
      UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions: getNativeFunction('UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions', 'void', [['double', 'double'], 'bool', 'double']),
      UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions: getNativeFunction('UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions', 'void', [['double', 'double'], 'bool', 'double']),
      UIGraphicsEndImageContext: getNativeFunction('UIGraphicsEndImageContext', 'void', []),
      UIGraphicsGetImageFromCurrentImageContext: getNativeFunction('UIGraphicsGetImageFromCurrentImageContext', 'pointer', []),
      UIImagePNGRepresentation: getNativeFunction('UIImagePNGRepresentation', 'pointer', ['pointer'])
    };
    var view = api.UIWindow.keyWindow();
    var bounds = view.bounds();
    var size = bounds[1];
    api.UIGraphicsBeginImageContextWithOptions(size, 0, 0);
    view.drawViewHierarchyInRect_afterScreenUpdates_(bounds, true);

    var image = api.UIGraphicsGetImageFromCurrentImageContext();
    api.UIGraphicsEndImageContext();

    var png = new ObjC.Object(api.UIImagePNGRepresentation(image));
    send('screenshot', Memory.readByteArray(png.bytes(), png.length()));
  });
}

rpc.exports = {
  takescreenshot: screenshot
}
...
def save_screenshot(d):
    f = open('/tmp/screenshot.png', 'wb')
    f.write(d)
    f.close()

def on_message(msg, data):
    save_screenshot(data)
 
 script.exports.takescreenshot()
 
 # open screenshot & invoke rpc via input 
 # <Ctrl+C> will take screenshot, open it with eog & wait for export function name to invoke via input
 def on_message(msg, data):
    if 'payload' in msg:
        if msg['payload'] == 'screenshot':
            i = '/tmp/screenshot.png'
            f = open(i, 'wb')
            f.write(data)
            f.close()
            subprocess.call(['eog', i])
	   
 while True:
    try:
        time.sleep(1)
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        script.exports.takescreenshot()
        try:
            getattr(script.exports, input())()
        except (KeyboardInterrupt, frida.core.RPCException) as e:
            print('[!]', e)

Output example TODO


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TODOs

  • Add GIFs & examples
  • Add links to /scripts
  • Extend universal SSL unpinning for ios andoid 1 [android

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