Hacking can be carried out in many ways. The most common form is the phishing scam, where hackers attempt to gain login names and passwords, or introduce malware into networked computing environments, by tricking users into opening an email attachment or forwarding private information. Some of the most serious breaches of recent years, including the Wannacry malware attack, began as phishing scams, affecting not just the target enterprise but associated partners, customers, government agencies and others.
A Hacker is a person who finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems and/or networks to gain access. Hackers are usually skilled computer programmers with knowledge of computer security. Hackers are classified according to the intent of their actions. The following list classifies hackers according to their intent.
Ethical Hacking sometimes called as Penetration Testing is an act of intruding/penetrating into system or networks to find out threats, vulnerabilities in those systems which a malicious attacker may find and exploit causing loss of data, financial loss or other major damages. The purpose of ethical hacking is to improve the security of the network or systems by fixing the vulnerabilities found during testing. Ethical hackers may use the same methods and tools used by the malicious hackers but with the permission of the authorized person for the purpose of improving the security and defending the systems from attacks by malicious users. Ethical hackers are expected to report all the vulnerabilities and weakness found during the process to the management.
Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks. These cyberattacks are usually aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information; extorting money from users; or interrupting normal business processes.
Hacking Tools are computer programs and scripts that help you find and exploit weaknesses in computer systems, web applications, servers and networks. There is a variety of such tools available on the market. Some of them are open source while others are commercial solution.
CTF (Capture The Flag) is a kind of information security competition that challenges contestants to solve a variety of tasks ranging from a scavenger hunt on wikipedia to basic programming exercises, to hacking your way into a server to steal data. In these challenges, the contestant is usually asked to find a specific piece of text that may be hidden on the server or behind a webpage. This goal is called the flag, hence the name! Like many competitions, the skill level for CTFs varies between the events. Some are targeted towards professionals with experience operating on cyber security teams. These typically offer a large cash reward and can be held at a specific physical location.
Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents.When transmitting electronic data, the most common use of cryptography is to encrypt and decrypt email and other plain-text messages.Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Today, cryptography is used to provide secrecy and integrity to our data, and both authentication and anonymity to our communications.An example of basic cryptography is a encrypted message in which letters are replaced with other characters. To decode the encrypted contents, you would need a grid or table that defines how the letters are transposed.
There are a lot of resources out there in order to help you get started with Ethical Hacking. These range from YouTube tutorials to virtual lab environments where you can hone your skills.