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.. image:: http://media.charlesleifer.com/blog/photos/peewee3-logo.png

peewee

Peewee is a simple and small ORM. It has few (but expressive) concepts, making it easy to learn and intuitive to use.

  • a small, expressive ORM
  • python 2.7+ and 3.4+ (developed with 3.6)
  • supports sqlite, mysql, postgresql and cockroachdb
  • tons of extensions <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/playhouse.html>_

.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/coleifer/peewee.svg?branch=master :target: https://travis-ci.org/coleifer/peewee

New to peewee? These may help:

  • Quickstart <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/quickstart.html#quickstart>_
  • Example twitter app <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/example.html>_
  • Using peewee interactively <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/interactive.html>_
  • Models and fields <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/models.html>_
  • Querying <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/querying.html>_
  • Relationships and joins <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/relationships.html>_

Examples

Defining models is similar to Django or SQLAlchemy:

.. code-block:: python

from peewee import *
import datetime


db = SqliteDatabase('my_database.db')

class BaseModel(Model):
    class Meta:
        database = db

class User(BaseModel):
    username = CharField(unique=True)

class Tweet(BaseModel):
    user = ForeignKeyField(User, backref='tweets')
    message = TextField()
    created_date = DateTimeField(default=datetime.datetime.now)
    is_published = BooleanField(default=True)

Connect to the database and create tables:

.. code-block:: python

db.connect()
db.create_tables([User, Tweet])

Create a few rows:

.. code-block:: python

charlie = User.create(username='charlie')
huey = User(username='huey')
huey.save()

# No need to set `is_published` or `created_date` since they
# will just use the default values we specified.
Tweet.create(user=charlie, message='My first tweet')

Queries are expressive and composable:

.. code-block:: python

# A simple query selecting a user.
User.get(User.username == 'charlie')

# Get tweets created by one of several users.
usernames = ['charlie', 'huey', 'mickey']
users = User.select().where(User.username.in_(usernames))
tweets = Tweet.select().where(Tweet.user.in_(users))

# We could accomplish the same using a JOIN:
tweets = (Tweet
          .select()
          .join(User)
          .where(User.username.in_(usernames)))

# How many tweets were published today?
tweets_today = (Tweet
                .select()
                .where(
                    (Tweet.created_date >= datetime.date.today()) &
                    (Tweet.is_published == True))
                .count())

# Paginate the user table and show me page 3 (users 41-60).
User.select().order_by(User.username).paginate(3, 20)

# Order users by the number of tweets they've created:
tweet_ct = fn.Count(Tweet.id)
users = (User
         .select(User, tweet_ct.alias('ct'))
         .join(Tweet, JOIN.LEFT_OUTER)
         .group_by(User)
         .order_by(tweet_ct.desc()))

# Do an atomic update
Counter.update(count=Counter.count + 1).where(Counter.url == request.url)

Check out the example twitter app <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/en/latest/peewee/example.html>_.

Learning more

Check the documentation <http://docs.peewee-orm.com/>_ for more examples.

Specific question? Come hang out in the #peewee channel on irc.freenode.net, or post to the mailing list, http://groups.google.com/group/peewee-orm . If you would like to report a bug, create a new issue <https://github.com/coleifer/peewee/issues/new>_ on GitHub.

Still want more info?

.. image:: http://media.charlesleifer.com/blog/photos/wat.jpg

I've written a number of blog posts about building applications and web-services with peewee (and usually Flask). If you'd like to see some real-life applications that use peewee, the following resources may be useful:

  • Building a note-taking app with Flask and Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/saturday-morning-hack-a-little-note-taking-app-with-flask/>_ as well as Part 2 <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/saturday-morning-hacks-revisiting-the-notes-app/>_ and Part 3 <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/saturday-morning-hacks-adding-full-text-search-to-the-flask-note-taking-app/>_.
  • Analytics web service built with Flask and Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/saturday-morning-hacks-building-an-analytics-app-with-flask/>_.
  • Personalized news digest (with a boolean query parser!) <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/saturday-morning-hack-personalized-news-digest-with-boolean-query-parser/>_.
  • Structuring Flask apps with Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/structuring-flask-apps-a-how-to-for-those-coming-from-django/>_.
  • Creating a lastpass clone with Flask and Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/creating-a-personal-password-manager/>_.
  • Creating a bookmarking web-service that takes screenshots of your bookmarks <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/building-bookmarking-service-python-and-phantomjs/>_.
  • Building a pastebin, wiki and a bookmarking service using Flask and Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/dont-sweat-small-stuff-use-flask-blueprints/>_.
  • Encrypted databases with Python and SQLCipher <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/encrypted-sqlite-databases-with-python-and-sqlcipher/>_.
  • Dear Diary: An Encrypted, Command-Line Diary with Peewee <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/dear-diary-an-encrypted-command-line-diary-with-python/>_.
  • Query Tree Structures in SQLite using Peewee and the Transitive Closure Extension <http://charlesleifer.com/blog/querying-tree-structures-in-sqlite-using-python-and-the-transitive-closure-extension/>_.

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