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Metorikku is a library that simplifies writing and executing ETLs on top of Apache Spark.

It is based on simple YAML configuration files and runs on any Spark cluster.

The platform also includes a simple way to write unit and E2E tests.

Getting started

To run Metorikku you must first define 2 files.

Metric file

A metric file defines the steps and queries of the ETL as well as where and what to output.

For example a simple configuration YAML (JSON is also supported) should be as follows:

- dataFrameName: df1
    SELECT *
    FROM input_1
    WHERE id > 100
- dataFrameName: df2
    SELECT *
    FROM df1
    WHERE id < 1000
- dataFrameName: df2
  outputType: Parquet
    saveMode: Overwrite
    path: df2.parquet

You can check out a full example file for all possible values in the sample YAML configuration file.

Make sure to also check out the full Spark SQL Language manual for the possible queries.

Job file

This file will include input sources, output destinations and the location of the metric config files.

So for example a simple YAML (JSON is also supported) should be as follows:

  - /full/path/to/your/metric/file.yaml
  input_1: parquet/input_1.parquet
  input_2: parquet/input_2.parquet
        dir: /path/to/parquet/output

You can check out a full example file for all possible values in the sample YAML configuration file.

Also make sure to check out all our examples.

Supported input/output:

Currently Metorikku supports the following inputs: CSV, JSON, parquet, JDBC, Kafka, Cassandra, Elasticsearch

And the following outputs: CSV, JSON, parquet, Redshift, Cassandra, Segment, JDBC, Kafka, Elasticsearch

Running Metorikku

There are currently 3 options to run Metorikku.

Run on a spark cluster

To run on a cluster Metorikku requires Apache Spark v2.2+

  • Download the last released JAR
  • Run the following command: spark-submit --class com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku metorikku.jar -c config.yaml

Running with remote job/metric files:

Metorikku supports using remote job/metric files.

Simply write the full path to the job/metric. example: s3://bucket/job.yaml

Anything supported by hadoop can be used (s3, hdfs etc.)

To help running both locally and remotely you can add the following env variable at runtime to add a prefix to all your configuration files paths: CONFIG_FILES_PATH_PREFIX=s3://bucket/

Run locally

Metorikku is released with a JAR that includes a bundled spark.

  • Download the last released Standalone JAR
  • Metorikku is required to be running with Java 1.8
  • Run the following command: java -D"spark.master=local[*]" -cp metorikku-standalone.jar com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku -c config.yaml
  • Also job in a JSON format is supported, run following command: java -D"spark.master=local[*]" -cp metorikku-standalone.jar com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku --job "{*}"

Run locally in intellij:

Go to Run->Edit Configuration->add application configuration

  • Main Class: com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku
  • Vm options: -Dspark.master=local[*] -Dspark.executor.cores=1 -Dspark.driver.bindAddress= -Dspark.serializer=org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer
  • program arguments: -c examples/movies.yaml
  • JRE: 1.8

Run tester in intellij:

  • Main class: com.yotpo.metorikku.MetorikkuTester
  • Program arguments: --test-settings /{path to }/test_settings.yaml

Run as a library

It's also possible to use Metorikku inside your own software

Metorikku library requires scala 2.11 (spark 2)/2.12 (spark 3)

To use it add the following dependency to your build.sbt: "com.yotpo" % "metorikku" % "LATEST VERSION"

Metorikku Tester

In order to test and fully automate the deployment of metrics we added a method to run tests against a metric.

A test is comprised of the following:

Test settings

This defines what to test and where to get the mocked data. For example, a simple test YAML (JSON is also supported) will be:

metric: "/path/to/metric"
- name: table_1
  path: mocks/table_1.jsonl
  - id: 200
    name: test
  - id: 300
    name: test2
  - id
  - name

And the corresponding mocks/table_1.jsonl:

{ "id": 200, "name": "test" }
{ "id": 300, "name": "test2" }
{ "id": 1, "name": "test3" }

The Keys section allows the user to define the unique columns of every DataFrame's expected results - every expected row result should have a unique combination for the values of the key columns. This part is optional and can be used to define only part of the expected DataFrames - for the DataFrames that don't have a key definition, all of the columns defined in the first row result will be taken by default as the unique keys. Defining a shorter list of key columns will result in better performances and a more detailed error message in case of test failure.

The structure of the defined expected dataFrame's result must be identical for all rows, and the keys must be valid (defined as columns of the expected results of the same DataFrame)

Running Metorikku Tester

You can run Metorikku tester in any of the above methods (just like a normal Metorikku).

The main class changes from com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku to com.yotpo.metorikku.MetorikkuTester

Testing streaming metrics

In Spark some behaviors are different when writing queries for streaming sources (for example kafka).

In order to make sure the test behaves the same as the real life queries, you can configure a mock to behave like a streaming input by writing the following:

metric: "/path/to/metric"
- name: table_1
  path: mocks/table_1.jsonl
  # default is false
  streaming: true
# default is append output mode
outputMode: update
  - id: 200
    name: test
  - id: 300
    name: test2


Variable interpolation

All configuration files support variable interpolation from environment variables and system properties using the following format: ${variable_name}

Using JDBC

When using JDBC writer or input you must provide a path to the driver JAR.

For example to run with spark-submit with a mysql driver: spark-submit --driver-class-path mysql-connector-java-5.1.45.jar --jars mysql-connector-java-5.1.45.jar --class com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku metorikku.jar -c config.yaml

If you want to run this with the standalone JAR: java -Dspark.master=local[*] -cp metorikku-standalone.jar:mysql-connector-java-5.1.45.jar -c config.yaml

JDBC query

JDBC query output allows running a query for each record in the dataframe.

Mandatory parameters:
  • query - defines the SQL query. In the query you can address the column of the DataFrame by their location using the dollar sign ($) followed by the column index. For example:
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3, ...) VALUES ($1, $2, $3, ...);
Optional Parameters:
  • maxBatchSize - The maximum size of queries to execute against the DB in one commit.
  • minPartitions - Minimum partitions in the DataFrame - may cause repartition.
  • maxPartitions - Maximum partitions in the DataFrame - may cause coalesce.

Kafka output

Kafka output allows writing batch operations to kafka

We use spark-sql-kafka-0-10 as a provided jar - spark-submit command should look like so:

spark-submit --packages org.apache.spark:spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12:3.0.0 --class com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku metorikku.jar

Mandatory parameters:
  • topic - defines the topic in kafka which the data will be written to. currently supported only one topic

  • valueColumn - defines the values which will be written to the Kafka topic, Usually a json version of data, For example:

SELECT keyColumn, to_json(struct(*)) AS valueColumn FROM table
Optional Parameters:
  • keyColumn - key that can be used to perform de-duplication when reading

Periodic job

Periodic job configuration allows to schedule a batch job to execute repeatedly every configured duration of time. This is an example of a periodic configuraion:

  triggerDuration: 20 minutes

Streaming Input

Using streaming input will convert your application into a streaming application build on top of Spark Structured Streaming.

To enable all other writers and also enable multiple outputs for a single streaming dataframe, add batchMode to your job configuration, this will enable the foreachBatch mode (only available in spark >= 2.4.0) Check out all possible streaming configurations in the streaming section of the sample job configuration file.

Please note the following while using streaming applications:

  • Multiple streaming aggregations (i.e. a chain of aggregations on a streaming DF) are not yet supported on streaming Datasets.

  • Limit and take first N rows are not supported on streaming Datasets.

  • Distinct operations on streaming Datasets are not supported.

  • Sorting operations are supported on streaming Datasets only after an aggregation and in Complete Output Mode.

  • Make sure to add the relevant Output Mode to your Metric as seen in the Examples

  • Make sure to add the relevant Triggers to your Metric if needed as seen in the Examples

  • For more information please go to Spark Structured Streaming WIKI

Kafka Input

Kafka input allows reading messages from topics

      topic: test
      consumerGroup: testConsumerGroupID # optional
      schemaRegistryUrl: https://schema-registry-url # optional
      schemaSubject: subject # optional

When using kafka input, writing is only available to File and Kafka, and only to a single output.

  • In order to measure your consumer lag you can use the consumerGroup parameter to track your application offsets against your kafka input. This will commit the offsets to kafka, as a new dummy consumer group.

  • we use ABRiS as a provided jar In order to deserialize your kafka stream messages (, add the schemaRegistryUrl option to the kafka input config spark-submit command should look like so:

spark-submit --repositories --jars --packages org.apache.spark:spark-avro_2.12:3.0.0,org.apache.spark:spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12:3.0.0,io.confluent:kafka-schema-registry-client:5.3.0,io.confluent:kafka-avro-serializer:5.3.0 --class com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku metorikku.jar

  • If your subject schema name is not <TOPIC NAME>-value (e.g. if the topic is a regex pattern) you can specify the schema subject in the schemaSubject section
Topic Pattern

Kafka input also allows reading messages from multiple topics by using subscribe pattern:

      # topicPattern can be any Java regex string
      topicPattern: my_topics_regex.*
      consumerGroup: testConsumerGroupID # optional
      schemaRegistryUrl: https://schema-registry-url # optional
      schemaSubject: subject # optional
  • While using topicPattern, consider using schemaRegistryUrl and schemaSubject in case your topics have different schemas.
File Streaming Input

Metorikku supports streaming over a file system as well. You can use the Data stream reading by specifying isStream: true, and a specific path in the job (must be a single path) as a streaming source, this will trigger jobs for new files added to the folder.

      path: examples/file_input_stream/input
      isStream: true
      format: json
        timestampFormat: "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss'Z'"

Metorikku supports Watermark method which helps a stream processing engine to deal with late data. You can use watermarking by adding a new udf step in your metric:

# This will become the new watermarked dataframe name.
- dataFrameName: dataframe
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.Watermark
    # Watermark table my_table
    table: my_table
    # The column representing the event time (needs to be a TIMESTAMP or DATE column)
    eventTime: event
    delayThreshold: 2 hours

Metorikku supports to_avro() method which turns a dataframe into Avro records.

The method requires the following parameters:

- table 
- schema.registry.url
- schema.registry.topic
- schema.namespace

table is the input table and it should contain a "value" column, and can contain a key column.

The content of the value column in the input table will turn into avro in the value column of the output table. The content of the key column in the input table will turn into avro in the key column of the output table. key is not necessary in the input.

The and schema.namespace will be the schame name and namespace for both the value schema and the key schema, if a key exist.

A subject will be created in the schema registry (if one doesn't already exist). The subject name will be: <schema.registry.topic>-value for the value schema and <schema.registry.topic>-key for the key schema.
You can use ToAvro by adding a new udf step in your metric:

- dataFrameName: dataframe
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.ToAvro
    table: my_table
    schema.registry.url: http://localhost:8081
    schema.registry.topic: my_topic my_schema_name
    schema.namespace: my_schema_namespace


One of the most useful features in Metorikku is it's instrumentation capabilities.

Instrumentation metrics are written by default to what's configured in spark-metrics.

Metorikku sends automatically on top of what spark is already sending the following:

  • Number of rows written to each output

  • Number of successful steps per metric

  • Number of failed steps per metric

  • In streaming: records per second

  • In streaming: number of processed records in batch

You can also send any information you like to the instrumentation output within a metric. by default the last column of the schema will be the field value. Other columns that are not value or time columns will be merged together as the name of the metric. If writing directly to influxDB these will become tags.

Check out the example for further details.

using InfluxDB

You can also send metric directly to InfluxDB (gaining the ability to use tags and time field).

Check out the example and also the InfluxDB E2E test for further details.

Elasticsearch output

Elasticsearch output allows bulk writing to elasticsearch We use elasticsearch-hadoop as a provided jar - spark-submit command should look like so:

spark-submit --packages org.elasticsearch:elasticsearch-hadoop:6.6.1 --class com.yotpo.metorikku.Metorikku metorikku.jar

Check out the example and also the Elasticsearch E2E test for further details.


Metorikku is provided with a docker image.

You can use this docker to deploy metorikku in container based environments (we're using Nomad by HashiCorp).

Check out this docker-compose for a full example of all the different parameters available and how to set up a cluster.

Currently the image only supports running metorikku in a spark cluster mode with the standalone scheduler.

The image can also be used to run E2E tests of a metorikku job. Check out an example of running a kafka 2 kafka E2E with docker-compose here


Metorikku supports adding custom code as a step. This requires creating a JAR with the custom code. Check out the UDF examples directory for a very simple example of such a JAR.

The only thing important in this JAR is that you have an object with the following method:

object SomeObject {
  def run(ss: org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession, metricName: String, dataFrameName: String, params: Option[Map[String, String]]): Unit = {}

Inside the run function do whatever you feel like, in the example folder you'll see that we registered a new UDF. Once you have a proper scala file and a build.sbt file you can run sbt package to create the JAR.

When you have the newly created JAR (should be in the target folder), copy it to the spark cluster (you can of course also deploy it to your favorite repo).

You must now include this JAR in your spark-submit command by using the --jars flag, or if you're using java to run add it to the -cp flag.

Now all that's left is to add it as a new step in your metric:

- dataFrameName: dataframe
  classpath: com.example.SomeObject
    param1: value1

This will trigger your run method with the above dataFrameName. Check out the built-in code steps here.

NOTE: If you added some dependencies to your custom JAR build.sbt you have to either use sbt-assembly to add them to the JAR or you can use the --packages when running the spark-submit command

Custom Functions

There are some custom functions already implemented as part of the Metorikku JAR:

  • SelectiveMerge: Outer joins two tables according to keys.
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.SelectiveMerge
    df1: table1
    df2: table2
    joinKeys: column1,column2
  • RemoveDuplicates: Remove duplicate rows based on index columns, or compare entire rows if not provided.
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.RemoveDuplicates
    table: tableName
    columns: column1,column2
  • DropColumns: Remove redundant columns by a given list.
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.DropColumns
    table: tableName
    columns: column1,column2
  • CamelCaseColumnNames: Converts snake_case column names to CamelCase
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.CamelCaseColumnNames
    table: tableName
  • AlignTables: Converts source table schema to target schema, adding any missing column as null
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.AlignTables
    from: tableToConvert
    to: tableSchemaToUse
  • LoadIfExists: Loads table into a Dataframe, only if the table exists. If not - the result DataFrame will be empty
- dataFrameName: resultFrame
  classpath: com.yotpo.metorikku.code.steps.LoadIfExists
    dfName: dfToFill
    tableName: tableToFillWith

Apache Hive metastore

Metorikku supports reading and saving tables with Apache hive metastore. To enable hive support via spark-submit (assuming you're using MySQL as Hive's DB but any backend can work) send the following configurations:

spark-submit \
--packages mysql:mysql-connector-java:5.1.75 \
--conf spark.sql.catalogImplementation=hive \
--conf spark.hadoop.javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/hive?useSSL=false&createDatabaseIfNotExist=true" \
--conf spark.hadoop.javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver \
--conf spark.hadoop.javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName=user \
--conf spark.hadoop.javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword=pass \
--conf spark.sql.warehouse.dir=/warehouse ...

NOTE: If you're running via the standalone metorikku you can use system properties instead (-Dspark.hadoop...) and you must add the MySQL connector JAR to your class path via -cp

This will enable reading from the metastore.

To write an external table to the metastore you need to add tableName to your output configuration:

- dataFrameName: moviesWithRatings
  outputType: Parquet
    saveMode: Overwrite
    path: moviesWithRatings.parquet
    tableName: hiveTable
    overwrite: true

Only file formats are supported for table saves (Parquet, CSV, JSON).

To write a managed table (that will reside in the warehouse dir) simply omit the path in the output configuration.

To change the default database you can add the following to the job configuration:

  database: some_database

Hive table properties

Metorikku enables the update of a table's properties in hive. You can use one of the following methods to do it. Using static table properties:

- dataFrameName: dataFrame
  outputType: Parquet
    saveMode: Overwrite
    path: path.parquet
    tableName: table
      property: value1
      comment: comment1

Or by using dynamic properties with the Catalog writer (please note that the dataframe needs to contain exaclty a single row, all columns from this row will be written as properties in the hive table):

- dataFrameName: tableProperties
  sql: SELECT count(1) as number_of_rows FROM anotherTable
- dataFrameName: tableProperties
  outputType: Catalog
    tableName: table

Check out the examples and the E2E test

Apache Hudi

Metorikku supports reading/writing with Apache Hudi.

Hudi is a very exciting project that basically allows upserts and deletes directly on top of partitioned parquet data.

In order to use Hudi with Metorikku you need to add to your classpath (via --jars or if running locally with -cp) an external JAR from here:

To run Hudi jobs you also have to make sure you have the following spark configuration (pass with --conf or -D):


After that you can start using the new Hudi writer like this:

Job config

    dir: /examples/output
    # This controls the level of parallelism of hudi writing (should be similar to shuffle partitions)
    parallelism: 1
    # upsert/insert/bulkinsert
    operation: upsert
    storageType: COPY_ON_WRITE
    # Maximum number of versions to retain 
    maxVersions: 1
    # Hive database to use when writing
    hiveDB: default
    # Hive server URL (no longer needed in hudi 0.5.3+)
    hiveJDBCURL: jdbc:hive2://hive:10000
    hiveUserName: root
    hivePassword: pass
    # Delete inflight and compaction requested of unfinished commit
    deletePendingCompactions: true

Metric config

dataFrameName: test
  outputType: Hudi
    path: test.parquet
    # The key to use for upserts
    keyColumn: userkey
    # This will be used to determine which row should prevail (newer timestamps will win)
    timeColumn: ts
    # Partition column - note that hudi support a single column only, so if you require multiple levels of partitioning you need to add / to your column values
    partitionBy: date
    # Mapping of the above partitions to hive (for example if above is yyyy/MM/dd than the mapping should be year,month,day)
    hivePartitions: year,month,day
    # Hive table to save the results to
    tableName: test_table
    # Add missing columns according to previous schema, if exists
    alignToPreviousSchema: true
    # Remove completely null columns
    removeNullColumns: true

In order to delete send in your dataframe a boolean column called _hoodie_delete, if it's true that row will be deleted.

Check out the examples and the E2E test for more details.

Also check the full list of configurations possible with hudi here.

Apache Atlas

Metorikku supports Data Lineage and Governance using Apache Atlas and the Spark Atlas Connector

Atlas is an open source Data Governance and Metadata framework for Hadoop which provides open metadata management and governance capabilities for organizations to build a catalog of their data assets, classify and govern these assets and provide collaboration capabilities around these data assets for data scientists, analysts and the data governance team.

In order to use the spark-atlas-connector with Metorikku you need to add to your classpath (via --jars or if running locally with -cp) an external JAR from here:

To integrate the connector with Metorikku docker, you need to pass USE_ATLAS=true as en environment variable and the following config will be automatically added to spark-default.conf:


For a full example please refer to examples/docker-compose-atlas.yml

Data Quality

You can also execute a series of verifications on your SQL steps with adding a dq block to your SQL step within the metric file. for example:

- dataFrameName: df1
    SELECT col1, col2
    FROM input_1
    WHERE id > 100
    level: warn
      - isComplete
          column: col1
      - isComplete:
          column: col2
          level: error

Check out the readme and example for further details.


See the LICENSE file for license rights and limitations (MIT).

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