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Image Colorization with Generative Adversarial Networks

In this work, we generalize the colorization procedure using a conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DCGAN) as as suggested by Pix2Pix. The network is trained on the datasets CIFAR-10 and Places365. Some of the results from Places365 dataset are shown here.

Prerequisites

  • Linux
  • Tensorflow 1.7
  • NVIDIA GPU (12G or 24G memory) + CUDA cuDNN

Getting Started

Installation

  • Clone this repo:
git clone https://github.com/ImagingLab/Colorizing-with-GANs.git
cd Colorizing-with-GANs
pip install -r requirements.txt

Dataset

  • We use CIFAR-10 and Places365 datasets. To train a model on the full dataset, download datasets from official websites. After downloading, put then under the datasets folder.

Training

  • To train the model, run main.py script
python main.py
  • To train the model on places365 dataset with tuned hyperparameters:
python train.py \
  --seed 100 \
  --dataset places365 \
  --dataset-path ./dataset/places365 \
  --checkpoints-path ./checkpoints \
  --batch-size 16 \
  --epochs 10 \
  --lr 3e-4 \
  --label-smoothing 1
  
  • To train the model of cifar10 dataset with tuned hyperparameters:
python train.py \
  --seed 100 \
  --dataset cifar10 \
  --dataset-path ./dataset/cifar10 \
  --checkpoints-path ./checkpoints \
  --batch-size 128 \
  --epochs 200 \
  --lr 3e-4 \
  --lr-decay-steps 1e4 \
  --augment True
  

Test

  • Download the pre-trained weights from here. and copy them in the checkpoints folder.
  • To test the model on a custom image(s), run test.py script:
python test.py \
  --checkpoints-path ./checkpoints \        # checkpoints path
  --test-input ./checkpoints/test \         # test image(s) path
  --test-output ./checkpoints/output \      # output image(s) path

Visual Turing Test

  • Download the pre-trained weights from here. and copy them in the checkpoints folder.
  • To evaluate the model qualitatively using visual Turing test, run test-turing.py:
python test-turing.py
  • To apply time-based visual Turing test run (2 seconds decision time):
python test-turing.py --test-delay 2

Networks Architecture

The architecture of generator is inspired by U-Net: The architecture of the model is symmetric, with n encoding units and n decoding units. The contracting path consists of 4x4 convolution layers with stride 2 for downsampling, each followed by batch normalization and Leaky-ReLU activation function with the slope of 0.2. The number of channels are doubled after each step. Each unit in the expansive path consists of a 4x4 transposed convolutional layer with stride 2 for upsampling, concatenation with the activation map of the mirroring layer in the contracting path, followed by batch normalization and ReLU activation function. The last layer of the network is a 1x1 convolution which is equivalent to cross-channel parametric pooling layer. We use tanh function for the last layer.

For discriminator, we use patch-gan architecture with contractive path similar to the baselines: a series of 4x4 convolutional layers with stride 2 with the number of channels being doubled after each downsampling. All convolution layers are followed by batch normalization, leaky ReLU activation with slope 0.2. After the last layer, a sigmoid function is applied to return probability values of 70x70 patches of the input being real or fake. We take the average of the probabilities as the network output!

Places365 Results

Colorization results with Places365. (a) Grayscale. (b) Original Image. (c) Colorized with GAN.

Citation

If you use this code for your research, please cite our paper Image Colorization with Generative Adversarial Networks:

@inproceedings{nazeri2018image,
  title={Image Colorization Using Generative Adversarial Networks},
  author={Nazeri, Kamyar and Ng, Eric and Ebrahimi, Mehran},
  booktitle={International Conference on Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects},
  pages={85--94},
  year={2018},
  organization={Springer}
}

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