Awesome Open Source
Awesome Open Source

Xcode VIPER Templates

The VIPER-Templates Wiki has tons of information to get you started.

VIPER is a 6 tier architecture that abstracts module tasks into each tier such that everything has a single responsibility. Its conforms to SOLID design principles and is an implementation of Clean Architecture concepts.

These templates are written in Swift for use with Xcode. Current supported versions of Swift are:

  • Swift 4
  • Swift 3
  • Swift 2.3

Head over to the VIPER-Templates Wiki for some in-depth information on VIPER and using these templates.

Did I mention there is a VIPER-Templates Wiki, you should check it out!

Note: Even though the wiki is linked three times above, the wiki is all displayed below because sometimes developers are lazy.

TODO

  • Keep it sexy
  • Write "Creating a VIPER Stack"
  • Write script to generate README from wiki pages (currently manual process)

Contents

VIPER

iOS is still a very young technology and as you may have found out an MVC architecture is anything but useful for long running applications. The fuboTV iOS application is adopting the VIPER architecture throughout.

What VIPER Is

VIPER is a 6 tier architecture that abstracts module tasks into each tier such that everything has a single responsibility. Its conforms to SOLID design principles and is an implementation of Clean Architecture concepts.

Main Goals Of VIPER:

  • Make code easy to iterate on
  • Make projects collaboration-friendly
  • Create reusable modules with separated concerns
  • Make code easy to test

A very simplistic representation would be:

A VIPER Stack

Most connections are two way and each direction is abstracted into an interface. For example:

  • Wireframe talks to the Presenter through the WireframeToPresenterInterface
  • Presenter talks to the Wireframe through the PresenterToWireframeInterface

The abstracted interfaces provide us with a way to easily conform to the interface (Goal 2 & 3). This lets us easily replace objects by creating new objects that only need to implement the interfaces (Goal 1 and 3). This also lets us create mock objects that can easily be injected for testing (Goal 4).

What VIPER Is NOT

VIPER is not the end all of architectures. It solves many problems that arise from MVC, but sometimes the technology of our IDE's doesn't mix well (ex: storyboards and segues). If you see a way to improve VIPER, please be vocal, we want it to improve!

Wireframe

The wireframe is responsible for instantiation and navigation. It is the interface into the VIPER stack. When creating a VIPER stack, you instantiate the wireframe and it instantiates all the other layers and connects them properly. A wireframe constructor could look like this:

lazy var moduleInteractor = Interactor()
lazy var modulePresenter = Presenter()
lazy var moduleView = View()

init() {
    super.init()

    let i = moduleInteractor
    let p = modulePresenter
    let v = moduleView

    i.presenter = p

    p.interactor = i
    p.view = v
    p.wireframe = self

    v.presenter = p
}

The wireframe maintains strong references to module layers so they do not get deallocated. It initializes all of them, and connects each one to the other, correctly.

With navigation, its specifically navigation to the stack or away from the stack. Lets say you want to display a login stack from the home stack of the application.

//HomeWireframe.swift
lazy loginModule: Login = LoginWireframe()
func presentLogin() {
    loginModule.present(onViewController: moduleView)
}

//LoginWireframe.swift
func present(onViewController viewController: UIViewController) {
    viewController.present(moduleView, animated: true)
    // Here, you could also notify the presenter that the stack 
    //    began presenting, but for login, there is no initial setup 
    //    for this to be needed since the text fields will be empty
    // presenter.beganPresenting()
}

The home wireframe has been told to present the login stack (from the HomePresenter). This function calls the login's wireframe, which implements the module's interface protocol, presentation method. The login's wireframe implements the presentation method by telling the view controller that is passed in to present the login module's view controller.

Presenter

The Presenter is where business logic lives. It is what drives all the other layers, making decisions based on events that happen in the other layers. Think of the Presenter like a manager, it knows what needs to happen to get certain task done, it knows who is best to do the job, and it tells those in its employ to do them, but doesn`t do any of the heavy lifting itself.

It has outlets to the other components of the VIPER stack, something like this:

weak var delegate: Delegate?
weak var interactor: PresenterToInteractorInterface!
weak var view: PresenterToViewInterface!
weak var wireframe: PresenterToWireframeInterface!
var moduleWireframe: Login {
     get {
         return self.wireframe as! Login
     }
}

Communicating with the Interactor

Lets take a look at a typical flow. Lets say your user wants to login to the application, so they have entered their username and password in the View, and now they tap the Login button.

//View.swift
@IBAction func loginTapped(sender: AnyObject) {
    let username = usernameTextField.text
    let password = passwordTextField.text
    presenter.userTappedLogin(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
}

//Presenter.swift
func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String) {
     interactor.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
}

The View will tell the Presenter of the user event, and pass the related information. When the Presenter gets it, it will tell the Interactor that it needs to call a service to login the user with the username and password the user entered.

Communicating with the Delegate

Lets say the call to the login service succeeded, and the module now needs to tell the Delegate the user has been logged in.

//Interactor.swift
func loggedIn(withUser user: User) {
    presenter.loginSucceeded()
}

//Presenter.swift
func loginSucceeded() {
    delegate?.loggedIn(login: moduleWireframe)
}

The Interactor will tell the Presenter of the success, and the presenter decides to tell the Delegate that login succeeded.

Communicating with the View

What if the login failed? Maybe the username doesn't exist, or the password was incorrect.

//Interactor.swift
func failedLogin(withError error: Error) {
    presenter.loginFailed(withError: error)
}

//Presenter.swift
func loginFailed(withError error: Error) {
    view.displayLoginError(withDescription: error.description)
}

The Interactor will tell the Presenter that login failed, and pass the error along. The presenter decides to tell the View to display a login error with the description received from backend. The View can then decide how it displays said error, maybe with an alert, or just a label, what ever it wants to do.

Communicating with the Wireframe

Maybe the user forgot their password and the reset password module needs to be presented.

//View.swift
@IBAction func resetPasswordTapped(sender: AnyObject) {
    presenter.userTappedResetPassword()
}

//Presenter.swift
func userTappedResetPassword() {
    wireframe.presentResetPassword()
}

Here, the user event is reported from the View to the Presenter, since there is navigation away from the login stack, to the reset password stack, the Wireframe needs to be notified. The Presenter tells the Wireframe to present that module, however it needs to.

View

An View is responsible for the user interface. It is the layer that retrieves information and events from the user and relates that to the Presenter.

It has outlets only to the Presenter of the VIPER stack, something like this:

weak var presenter: ViewToPresenterInterface!

It is important to understand that the View is dumb, it does not drive interactions of any kind. This is typically a very difficult concept for people new to VIPER, as with MVC, we are used to responding to View events like viewDidLoad or viewDidAppear. In VIPER, these events are handled by the Presenter, and the Presenter is what tells the View what to do.

Being a Reactive View

The View in a VIPER stack is reactive, not proactive. It only updates the UI in response to a command from the Presenter. This is important to understand as this is what causes the UI to be independent of data flow and easily changed. Lets say there is a jogging application, and the module has been told to present a screen that shows all the users jogging sessions. Somehow, the Presenter is told that some jogs were fetched.

//Presenter.swift
func fetchedJogs(jogs: [Jog]) {
    view.display(jogs: jogs)
}

//View.swift
func display(jogs newJogs: [Jog]) {
     jogs = newJogs
     tableView.reloadData()
}

When the Presenter receives jogs in someway, it then knows it needs to tell the View to display them, so it calls the display(jogs:) method on the View. This particular View uses a UITableView to display the jogs, so it just saves the jogs and tells the tableView to reload its data.

What if you wanted to change this implementation to use a UICollectionView? The display(jogs:) function would stay the same, and the Presenter/Interactor/Wireframe would never need to be touched. You could create a new View object that conforms to the same PresenterToViewInterface, but this one uses a UICollectionView implementation. Then this new View is just dropped into the place and you're all done!

Using View Objects

A big key of the VIPER architecture is being able to easily change layers without them affecting others. So what if we changed the Jog object to something like a Run object? Consequently, we would need to change all the layers of the VIPER stack to use this new Run object interface. What would be a better way?

We could create a data object that is specifically for this View layer that has only the fields we require to display. Lets say this View only needs to display the distance, date, and time of the Jog.

//Jog.swift
class Jog {
    var date: Date?
    var distance: Double?
    var location: Location?
    var time: Int?
    var user: User?
}

//ViewObject.swift
class ViewObject {
    var date: Date?
    var distance: Double?
    var time: Int?
    
    // Initializers
    init(fromJog jog: Jog) {
        date = jog.date
        distance = jog.distance
        time = jog.time
    }
}

//View.swift
func display(viewObjects newViewObjects: [ViewObject]) {
    viewObjects = newViewObjects
    tableView.reloadData()
}

Easy enough, right? Ok, now the backend starts returning Run objects. All we need to do is make the ViewObject have an init(fromRun:)

//Run.swift
class Run {
    var date: Date?
    var distance: Double?
    var endTime: Date?
    var location: Location?
    var startTime: Date?
    var user: User?
}

//ViewObject.swift
class ViewObject {
    var date: Date?
    var distance: Double?
    var time: Int?
    
    // Initializers
    init(fromJog jog: Jog) {
        // fromJog implementation
    }
    
    init(fromRun run: Run) {
        date = run.date
        distance = run.distance
        time = run.endTime - run.startTime
    }
}

All done! The View can keep using the same ViewObject to display the UI, and nothing needs to be changed on the View layer to handle this new data type.

Communicating with a Presenter

Ok, now lets say your user wants to login to the application, so the View is displaying two text fields, one for username entry, and the other for password. The user types in their username and password, then presses a Login button.

//View.swift
@IBAction func loginTapped(sender: AnyObject) {
    let username = usernameTextField.text
    let password = passwordTextField.text
    presenter.userTappedLogin(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
}

//Presenter.swift
func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String) {
     interactor.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
}

Here, the View tells the Presenter of the user event, and communicates the information that it gathered (username and password). The Presenter then decides what to do with the user event. Notice this flow isn't initiating a login call to the backend. It is just notifying the Presenter of the user event.

Interactor

An Interactor is responsible for data logic. It is the layer that retrieves the data from any source it needs to. For instance, it can communicate with a Service or a local data store such as CoreData.

It has outlets only to the Presenter of the VIPER stack, something like this:

weak var presenter: InteractorToPresenterInterface!

Communicating with a Service

Lets take a look at a typical flow. Lets say your user wants to login to the application, so the presenter has been told the user wants to login with their username and password:

//Presenter.swift
func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String) {
     interactor.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
}

//Interactor.swift
lazy var loginService: LoginService = LoginService()
func login(withUserName username: String, andPassword password: String) {
    loginService.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password,
        success: { (user: User) in
             self.loggedIn(withUser: user)
        },
        failure: { (error: Error) in
             self.failedLogin(withError: error)
        })
}

Here, the Interactor is told to login with the username and password by the Presenter. The Interactor knows that it needs to make a call to the loginService to login the user and get the user object from the web service. It can then implement the success and failure completion blocks as it needs to.

Communicating with the Presenter

So the loginService succeeded, and the success block of the Service is ran, and now this information needs to be conveyed to the Presenter.

//Interactor.swift
func loggedIn(withUser: user) {
     presenter.logginSucceeded()
}

Communicating with a DataStore

So what if instead of calling a Service, you instead want to get information from some sort of data manager like Realm? Lets say we are making a jogging application that records the user's jogging sessions.

//Presenter.swift
func beganPresenting() {
    interactor.fetchJogs()
}

//Interactor.swift
func fetchJogs() {
    let realm = try! Realm()
    let allJogs = realm.objects(Jog.self)
    presenter.fetchedJogs(Array(allJogs))
}

Notice the interface to the Interactor from the Presenter is the same as if the Interactor was going to call a Service. The Presenter has no idea how the Interactor fetches jogs (or logs in the user). The Interactor is responsible for this interaction.

Services

A Service is a modularized object that typically connects to a web interface to get data. This allows the connection to a web endpoint to be completely abstracted and easily changeable. The Interactor will call the Services and handle the responses, whether it is a success or failure.

Continuing with the Login flow example, lets say the Interactor has been told to login with a username and password.

//Interactor.swift
lazy var loginService: LoginService = LoginService()
func login(withUserName username: String, andPassword password: String) {
    loginService.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password,
        success: { (user: User) in
             self.loggedIn(withUser: user)
        },
        failure: { (error: Error) in
             self.failedLogin(withError: error)
        })
}

//LoginService.swift
func login(withUsername username: String,
           andPassword password: String,
           success completion: (user: User),
           failure: ((error: Error) -> Void)) {
    let parameters: Parameters = [
        "username": username,
        "password": password,
    ]
    let request = Alamofire.request("http://www.myserver.com/login,
                      method: Method.get,
                      parameters: parameters,
                      encoding: JSONEncoding.default)
    request.responseJSON { (response: Response) in
         switch response.result {
             case .Success(let value):
                 let user = User(fromJson: value)
                 completion(user: user)
             case .Failure(let error):
                 failure(error: error)
         }
    }
}

Here, we use Alamofire to handle the HTTP request to our server and login the user with username and password provided. The response is JSON, that is then parsed into a User object by the User entities init from JSON method. It is then returned to the completion handler block.

Similarly, if there was an error (maybe the username or password was incorrect), the failure block is called with the Error that was received.

So, with this implementation, notice that we can easily swap out Alamofire for any other networking API. The Interactor will still call the login service the same way, and receive the User or Error object through the same handler blocks, allowing this implementation to change on the fly without affecting any other part of our application!

Entities

Entities are data objects that we use throughout the application. They can be used anywhere, and are typically created by Services. They can be passed around any of the VIPER layers and used as needed.

Lets take a look a typical User entity

//User.swift
class User {
    // Identifier
    let userId: Int

    // Instance Variables
    let gender: String?
    let password: String?
    let username: String?
    
    // Initializers
    init(withUserId newUserId: Int) {
         userId = newUserId 
    }
    
    init?(fromJson json: [String: AnyObject]) {
        let json = JSON(jsonDictionary)
        let identifier = json["userId"].int

        guard identifier != nil else {
            return nil
        }

        self.init(withUserId: identifier)

        gender = json["gender"].string
        password = json["password"].string
        username = json["username"].string
    }
}

Here, we have a basic User object. In the init(withJson:) method we use SwiftyJSON to easily parse the JSON's values into the objects instance variables.

Installing

Here is a short video showing you how to install these templates:

VIPER - Installing

  1. Clone the VIPERTemplates repository
  2. Run the install script (double click)

If you do not see the templates in Xcode, head over to Installation Troubleshooting, and see if there is a solution.

Installation Troubleshooting

The installation of the VIPER templates is meant to be as easy and seamless as possible. The install script creates a symbolic link in the Xcode directory to the templates. This allows them to integrate directly into Xcode and be easily used through the File->New File Xcode flow. However, there is a problem that can arise based on the assumption of the install script.

Default Xcode Location

One very common occurrence is to have multiple versions of Xcode. You could have Xcode 7 (Swift 2.2), Xcode 8.2 (Swift 2.3), and Xcode 8.3 (Latest).

If your Xcode is not installed in the default /Applications/Xcode location, then you will need to change this path. It is very easy though!

The below examples use an applications directory with multiple Xcodes that looks like this:

Multiple Xcodes

Double Click

  1. Double Click the install script.
  2. When the script asks for the path to Xcode, instead of pressing return, put in the correct path.

Script Inputting the Xcode Path

Command Line

Alternatively, you can input the path to your Xcode.app as a command line argument

Command Line Inputting the Xcode Path

Updating

The VIPER Templates are always being improved and updates are pushed fairly frequently. The update process has had considerable thought put into it, and is meant to be just as easy, if not easier, than using the templates themselves. So what are the possible scenarios for updating?

Xcode Updates

Because Xcode is an app from the App Store, it is updated via the App Store, and the template directory does not have a static location on a users computer. So when Xcode updates, the template directory gets overwritten with Xcode's version of the templates. Getting the VIPER Templates back is very easy though!

  1. Run the install script
  2. All done!

Simply running the install script again re-adds the links to the VIPER templates into Xcode templates directory.

VIPER Template Updates

Since the templates are constantly being updated and improved, you will want the latest and greatest. So how do you update?

  1. Open Terminal
  2. cd into the VIPERTemplates repository
  3. git pull
  4. All done!

Since the install script creates symbolic links to the templates files, changing the files will instantly reflect in Xcode. So updating the repository with a pull from Git will update all your templates instantly as well!

Using The Templates

Once the templates are installed, using them is very easy. Here is a short video showing you how:

VIPER - Creating a VIPER Stack

  1. Open an Xcode project
  2. Create a new file (File > New > File or ⌘N)
  3. Choose VIPER
  4. Set your VIPER stack base name
  5. Continue adding files as regular to your app target
  6. Repeat steps 4->8 for VIPER Test, adding the files to your test target
  7. Continue to [Organizing the Stack](../../wiki/Organizing the Stack)

Organizing The Stack

Once all the files for the stack are created, organize them so they are easy to work with. Here is a short video showing you one way of how:

VIPER - Organizing the VIPER Stack

  • You want to organize the files into their respective layers for easy access. These layers are typically referred to as:
    • Data Logic - the Interactor and any associated tests or mocks.
    • Routing - the Wireframe and Presenter, as well as any associated tests or mocks.
    • User Interface - the View, storyboard, view objects, and any associated tests or mocks.
  • Try to keep your tests files as close to the implementation files as possible.
    • This is so when you see the implementation file you also see the test file, and you don't skip out on tests (something that is easy to do when you're focused on implementation).

What are These?

These templates create fully configured, and tested, base VIPER stacks in either Swift 2.3 or Swift 3 -> Swift 4. There is also the ability to choose between XCTest and Quick & Nimble unit tests.

The VIPER Templates create a large amount of files for just two templates. Its probably something you aren't used too, and can be a bit overwhelming if you're just getting into VIPER. However, understand that a lot of time, effort, and thought has gone into each of these files and their structure.

List of Files

Below is the list of files created by the templates. The filenames were created such that they should be self explanatory of the intent of the file. However, some context is added to files that may not be instantly understood. If there is anything that is confusing, please let me know and I will do my best to clarify.

VIPER Template

  • Interactor
  • InteractorProtocols
    • Presenter->Interactor protocol
  • Presenter
  • PresenterProtocols
    • Delegate, Interactor->Presenter, View->Presenter, Wireframe->Presenter protocols
  • View
  • ViewProtocols
    • Navigation and Presenter->View protocols
  • Wireframe
  • WireframeProtocols
    • Module and Presenter->Wireframe protocols

VIPER Tests Template

  • DelegateMock
    • mocked interface for the stacks delegate
  • InteractorTests
  • InteractorToPresenterInterfaceMock
  • PresenterTests
  • PresenterToInteractorInterfaceMock
  • PresenterToViewInterfaceMock
  • ViewTests
  • ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock
  • WireframeInterfacesMock
    • Mocks both the module interface and the PresenterToWireframeInterface since these objects need to be the same internally
  • WireframeTests
  • WireframeToPresenterInterfaceMock

Mocking Made Easy

One of the core goals of VIPER is to make unit testing easy. Many times developers are introduced to unit testing and end up hating it because it can be difficult. But why is it difficult? More often then not, the code was built without the thought of testing in mind. In other words, it wasn't written to be tested.

VIPER, by default, is built to be tested by abstracting the interfaces into protocols. This allows anything to conform to the protocol and thus the layers are easily injectable for unit testing.

Say we need to write code to capture a user tapping login. The user story would be something like this:

Given I am a user trying to login
When I tap the login button
Then I should login with my username and password

The tap on the button needs to cause the Presenter to be told that the user is trying to login in using the inputted username and password. Inside the View layer, the variable presenter is anything that conforms to the ViewToPresenterInterface. So what do we do if we want to test that, when the user taps login, the Presenter is told of the user event? The templates already abstract out the ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock. So in TDD we would start by writing our failing test, something like this:

//ViewTests.swift
@testable import Project
class ViewTests: XCTestCase {
    var view: JogsView!
    var presenterMock: JogsViewToPresenterInterfaceMock!

    override func setUp() {
        super.setUp()

        let sb = UIStoryboard(name: Jogs.storyboardIdentifier, bundle: Bundle(for: JogsView.self))
        view = sb.instantiateViewController(withIdentifier: .viewIdentifier) as! JogsView
        presenterMock = JogsViewToPresenterInterfaceMock()

        _ = view.view

        // This is where we easily inject a mocked interface into the view for testing
        view.presenter = presenterMock
    }
    
    func testLoginWasTappedWithUsernameAndPasswordShouldTellPresenterUserTappedLogin() {
         // Arrange
         view.usernameField.text = "testUserName"
         view.passwordField.text = "testPassword"

         // Act
         view.loginTapped(view.loginButton)

         // Assert
         XCTAssert(presenterMock.functionsCalled.contains("userTappedLogin(withUsername:andPassword:)"))
         XCTAssertEqual(presenterMock.withUsername, "testUserName")
         XCTAssertEqual(presenterMock.andPassword, "testPassword")
    }
}

Now we can run this test and see that it fails because we haven't implemented anything yet. Next, we define the interface function to call for the Presenter.

//PresenterProtocols.swift
protocol ViewToPresenterInterface {
    func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String)
}

Pretty good, next we need to have our actual Presenter and our ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock conform to the protocols.

//Presenter.swift
class Presenter {
    weak var interactor: PresenterToInteractorInterface!
    weak var view: PresenterToViewInterface!
    weak var wireframe: PresenterToWireframeInterface!
}

extension Presenter: ViewToPresenterInterface {
    func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String) {
         interactor.login(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)
    }
}

For the mocked interface, we just need to update the extension to conform to protocol, and save the input values so we can test them. Our mock turns into something like this:

//ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock.swift
class ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock {
    var functionsCalled = [String]()
    
    var andPassword: String?
    var withUsername: String?
}

extension ViewToPresenterInterfaceMock: ViewToPresenterInterface {
    func userTappedLogin(withUsername username: String, andPassword password: String) {
        functionsCalled.append(#function)
        withUsername = userName
        andPassword = password
    }
}

Great, everything conforms to the protocols we need them to, the View tests are injecting the mocked ViewToPresenterInterface, and everything compiles. However, we still have our failing test because we haven't implemented the functionality yet.

//View.swift
class View {
    weak var presenter: ViewToPresenterInterface!
    
    @IBAction func loginTapped(sender: AnyObject) {
        let username = usernameTextField.text
        let password = passwordTextField.text
        presenter.userTappedLogin(withUsername: username, andPassword: username)
    }
}

Now we are at a spot where we can run our tests and see if the presenter is told of the user event with the correct values being passed in. What happens when we run the tests?

func testLoginWasTappedWithUsernameAndPasswordShouldTellPresenterUserTappedLogin() {
    // Arrange
    view.usernameField.text = "testUserName"
    view.passwordField.text = "testPassword"

    // Act
    view.loginTapped(view.loginButton)

    // Assert
    XCTAssert(presenterMock.functionsCalled.contains("userTappedLogin(withUsername:andPassword:)"))
    XCTAssertEqual(presenterMock.withUsername, "testUserName")
    XCTAssertEqual(presenterMock.andPassword, "testPassword")
    // TEST FAILED: "testUserName" != "testPassword"
}

Oh dear, how could our test have failed?? But the message makes sense and we can easily find the error

//View.swift
class View {
    weak var presenter: ViewToPresenterInterface!
    
    @IBAction func loginTapped(sender: AnyObject) {
        let username = usernameTextField.text
        let password = passwordTextField.text
        presenter.userTappedLogin(withUsername: username, andPassword: username)
        // We passed the username as the password on accident!
    }
}

A quick change to the presenter call and we are good to go!

presenter.userTappedLogin(withUsername: username, andPassword: password)

Run the unit tests again and they should pass without problems.

Alternative Resources

VIPER isn't an industry standard. Just as there is no one way to implement MVC or MVVM, there are many different flavors of VIPER. The templates version has very verbose names to reduce the vocabulary and make it as easy as possible to get into VIPER. However, seeing others implementations is very useful.

Brigade

Differences:

  • Uses original vocabulary. Makes it very difficult to start with VIPER as you have to now all the vocabulary to get a decent understanding of what is happening. For example: their View.eventHandler = our View.presenter
  • Brigade has an additional DataManager layer. In practice this ends up turning the Interactor into a pass through layer. In our version, the Interactor interacts with Services directly.

Mutual Mobile (Original Authors)

Differences:

  • Uses original vocabulary. Makes it very difficult to start with VIPER as you have to now all the vocabulary to get a decent understanding of what is happening. For example: their View.eventHandler = our View.presenter
  • Examples are Objective-C. This ends up with them using PONSOs instead of base objects, but their intent is the same: Have very simple data structures to representEntities

An Architecture Exploration

This post is more of an exploration of many different architectures. It has decent break downs of each with explanations. Very useful to get some exposure to lots of different architectures.


Get A Weekly Email With Trending Projects For These Topics
No Spam. Unsubscribe easily at any time.
shell (10,409
swift (7,760
ios (3,618
xcode (490
clean-architecture (210
clean-code (106
viper (40
solid-principles (28