Awesome Open Source
Awesome Open Source

SSL Certificate Exporter

Exports metrics for certificates collected from various sources:

The metrics are labelled with fields from the certificate, which allows for informational dashboards and flexible alert routing.

Building

make
./ssl_exporter <flags>

Similarly to the blackbox_exporter, visiting http://localhost:9219/probe?target=example.com:443 will return certificate metrics for example.com. The ssl_probe_success metric indicates if the probe has been successful.

Docker

docker pull ribbybibby/ssl-exporter
docker run -p 9219:9219 ribbybibby/ssl-exporter:latest <flags>

Release process

  • Update the VERSION file in this repository and commit to master
  • This github action will add a changelog and upload binaries in response to a release being created in Github
  • Dockerhub will build and tag a new container image in response to tags of the format /^v[0-9.]+$/

Usage

usage: ssl_exporter [<flags>]

Flags:
  -h, --help                     Show context-sensitive help (also try --help-long and
                                 --help-man).
      --web.listen-address=":9219"
                                 Address to listen on for web interface and telemetry.
      --web.metrics-path="/metrics"
                                 Path under which to expose metrics
      --web.probe-path="/probe"  Path under which to expose the probe endpoint
      --config.file=""           SSL exporter configuration file
      --log.level="info"         Only log messages with the given severity or above. Valid
                                 levels: [debug, info, warn, error, fatal]
      --log.format="logger:stderr"
                                 Set the log target and format. Example:
                                 "logger:syslog?appname=bob&local=7" or
                                 "logger:stdout?json=true"
      --version                  Show application version.

Metrics

Metric Meaning Labels Probers
ssl_cert_not_after The date after which a peer certificate expires. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou tcp, https
ssl_cert_not_before The date before which a peer certificate is not valid. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou tcp, https
ssl_file_cert_not_after The date after which a certificate found by the file prober expires. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. file, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou file
ssl_file_cert_not_before The date before which a certificate found by the file prober is not valid. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. file, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou file
ssl_kubernetes_cert_not_after The date after which a certificate found by the kubernetes prober expires. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. namespace, secret, key, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou kubernetes
ssl_kubernetes_cert_not_before The date before which a certificate found by the kubernetes prober is not valid. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. namespace, secret, key, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou kubernetes
ssl_kubeconfig_cert_not_after The date after which a certificate found by the kubeconfig prober expires. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. kubeconfig, name, type, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou kubeconfig
ssl_kubeconfig_cert_not_before The date before which a certificate found by the kubeconfig prober is not valid. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. kubeconfig, name, type, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou kubeconfig
ssl_ocsp_response_next_update The nextUpdate value in the OCSP response. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time tcp, https
ssl_ocsp_response_produced_at The producedAt value in the OCSP response. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time tcp, https
ssl_ocsp_response_revoked_at The revocationTime value in the OCSP response. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time tcp, https
ssl_ocsp_response_status The status in the OCSP response. 0=Good 1=Revoked 2=Unknown tcp, https
ssl_ocsp_response_stapled Does the connection state contain a stapled OCSP response? Boolean. tcp, https
ssl_ocsp_response_this_update The thisUpdate value in the OCSP response. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time tcp, https
ssl_probe_success Was the probe successful? Boolean. all
ssl_prober The prober used by the exporter to connect to the target. Boolean. prober all
ssl_tls_version_info The TLS version used. Always 1. version tcp, https
ssl_verified_cert_not_after The date after which a certificate in the verified chain expires. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. chain_no, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou tcp, https
ssl_verified_cert_not_before The date before which a certificate in the verified chain is not valid. Expressed as a Unix Epoch Time. chain_no, serial_no, issuer_cn, cn, dnsnames, ips, emails, ou tcp, https

Configuration

TCP

Just like with the blackbox_exporter, you should pass the targets to a single instance of the exporter in a scrape config with a clever bit of relabelling. This allows you to leverage service discovery and keeps configuration centralised to your Prometheus config.

scrape_configs:
  - job_name: "ssl"
    metrics_path: /probe
    static_configs:
      - targets:
          - example.com:443
          - prometheus.io:443
    relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        target_label: __param_target
      - source_labels: [__param_target]
        target_label: instance
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: 127.0.0.1:9219 # SSL exporter.

HTTPS

By default the exporter will make a TCP connection to the target. This will be suitable for most cases but if you want to take advantage of http proxying you can use a HTTPS client by setting the https module parameter:

scrape_configs:
  - job_name: "ssl"
    metrics_path: /probe
    params:
      module: ["https"] # <-----
    static_configs:
      - targets:
          - example.com:443
          - prometheus.io:443
    relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        target_label: __param_target
      - source_labels: [__param_target]
        target_label: instance
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: 127.0.0.1:9219

This will use proxy servers discovered by the environment variables HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY and ALL_PROXY. Or, you can set the proxy_url option in the module configuration.

The latter takes precedence.

File

The file prober exports ssl_file_cert_not_after and ssl_file_cert_not_before for PEM encoded certificates found in local files.

Files local to the exporter can be scraped by providing them as the target parameter:

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=file&target=/etc/ssl/cert.pem"

The target parameter supports globbing (as provided by the doublestar package), which allows you to capture multiple files at once:

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=file&target=/etc/ssl/**/*.pem"

One specific usage of this prober could be to run the exporter as a DaemonSet in Kubernetes and then scrape each instance to check the expiry of certificates on each node:

scrape_configs:
  - job_name: "ssl-kubernetes-file"
    metrics_path: /probe
    params:
      module: ["file"]
      target: ["/etc/kubernetes/**/*.crt"]
    kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
    relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: ^(.*):(.*)$
        target_label: __address__
        replacement: ${1}:9219

Kubernetes

The kubernetes prober exports ssl_kubernetes_cert_not_after and ssl_kubernetes_cert_not_before for PEM encoded certificates found in secrets of type kubernetes.io/tls.

Provide the namespace and name of the secret in the form <namespace>/<name> as the target:

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=kubernetes&target=kube-system/secret-name"

Both the namespace and name portions of the target support glob matching (as provided by the doublestar package):

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=kubernetes&target=kube-system/*"

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=kubernetes&target=*/*"

The exporter retrieves credentials and context configuration from the following sources in the following order:

  • The kubeconfig path in the module configuration
  • The $KUBECONFIG environment variable
  • The default configuration file ($HOME/.kube/config)
  • The in-cluster environment, if running in a pod

Kubeconfig

The kubeconfig prober exports ssl_kubeconfig_cert_not_after and ssl_kubeconfig_cert_not_before for PEM encoded certificates found in the specified kubeconfig file.

Kubeconfigs local to the exporter can be scraped by providing them as the target parameter:

curl "localhost:9219/probe?module=kubeconfig&target=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"

One specific usage of this prober could be to run the exporter as a DaemonSet in Kubernetes and then scrape each instance to check the expiry of certificates on each node:

scrape_configs:
  - job_name: "ssl-kubernetes-kubeconfig"
    metrics_path: /probe
    params:
      module: ["kubeconfig"]
      target: ["/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"]
    kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
    relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: ^(.*):(.*)$
        target_label: __address__
        replacement: ${1}:9219

Configuration file

You can provide further module configuration by providing the path to a configuration file with --config.file. The file is written in yaml format, defined by the schema below.

modules: [<module>]

<module>

# The type of probe (https, tcp, file, kubernetes, kubeconfig)
prober: <prober_string>

# How long the probe will wait before giving up.
[ timeout: <duration> ]

# Configuration for TLS
[ tls_config: <tls_config> ]

# The specific probe configuration
[ https: <https_probe> ]
[ tcp: <tcp_probe> ]
[ kubernetes: <kubernetes_probe> ]

<tls_config>

# Disable target certificate validation.
[ insecure_skip_verify: <boolean> | default = false ]

# The CA cert to use for the targets.
[ ca_file: <filename> ]

# The client cert file for the targets.
[ cert_file: <filename> ]

# The client key file for the targets.
[ key_file: <filename> ]

# Used to verify the hostname for the targets.
[ server_name: <string> ]

<https_probe>

# HTTP proxy server to use to connect to the targets.
[ proxy_url: <string> ]

<tcp_probe>

# Use the STARTTLS command before starting TLS for those protocols that support it (smtp, ftp, imap)
[ starttls: <string> ]

<kubernetes_probe>

# The path of a kubeconfig file to configure the probe
[ kubeconfig: <string> ]

Example Queries

Certificates that expire within 7 days:

ssl_cert_not_after - time() < 86400 * 7

Wildcard certificates that are expiring:

ssl_cert_not_after{cn=~"\*.*"} - time() < 86400 * 7

Certificates that expire within 7 days in the verified chain that expires latest:

ssl_verified_cert_not_after{chain_no="0"} - time() < 86400 * 7

Number of certificates presented by the server:

count(ssl_cert_not_after) by (instance)

Identify failed probes:

ssl_probe_success == 0

Peer Certificates vs Verified Chain Certificates

Metrics are exported for the NotAfter and NotBefore fields for peer certificates as well as for the verified chain that is constructed by the client.

The former only includes the certificates that are served explicitly by the target, while the latter can contain multiple chains of trust that are constructed from root certificates held by the client to the target's server certificate.

This has important implications when monitoring certificate expiry.

For instance, it may be the case that ssl_cert_not_after reports that the root certificate served by the target is expiring soon even though clients can form another, much longer lived, chain of trust using another valid root certificate held locally. In this case, you may want to use ssl_verified_cert_not_after to alert on expiry instead, as this will contain the chain that the client actually constructs:

ssl_verified_cert_not_after{chain_no="0"} - time() < 86400 * 7

Each chain is numbered by the exporter in reverse order of expiry, so that chain_no="0" is the chain that will expire the latest. Therefore the query above will only alert when the chain of trust between the exporter and the target is truly nearing expiry.

It's very important to note that a query of this kind only represents the chain of trust between the exporter and the target. Genuine clients may hold different root certs than the exporter and therefore have different verified chains of trust.

Grafana

You can find a simple dashboard here that tracks certificate expiration dates and target connection errors.


Get A Weekly Email With Trending Projects For These Topics
No Spam. Unsubscribe easily at any time.
go (15,139
metrics (346
prometheus (324
ssl (197
tls (191
certificate (100
prometheus-exporter (80
ssl-certificates (30
ssl-certificate (28