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Ansible Firewall Role

Build Status Ansible Galaxy

After I found out UFW was too limited in terms of functionalities, I tried several firewall roles out there but none satisfied the requirements I had:

  • Support virtually all iptables rules from the start
  • Allow granular rules addition/overriding for specific hosts
  • Easily inject variables in the rules
  • Allow rules ordering
  • Simplicity (not having to learn how role variables would generate the rules)
  • Persistence (reload the rules at boot)

This role is an attempt to solve these requirements.

It supports ipv4 and ipv6* on Debian and RedHat distributions. ipv6 rules are not configured by default. If you which to use them, don't forget to set firewall_v6_configure to true.

Requirements

  • Ansible 2.4.0.0
  • iptables (installed by default on all official Debian and RedHat distributions)

Installation

$ ansible-galaxy install mikegleasonjr.firewall

Role Variables

defaults/main.yml:

---
firewall_v4_configure: true
firewall_v6_configure: false

firewall_v4_flush_rules:
  - -F
  - -X
  - -t raw -F
  - -t raw -X
  - -t nat -F
  - -t nat -X
  - -t mangle -F
  - -t mangle -X
firewall_v4_default_rules:
  001 default policies:
    - -P INPUT ACCEPT
    - -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
    - -P FORWARD DROP
  002 allow loopback:
    - -A INPUT -i lo -s 127.0.0.0/8 -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT
  003 allow ping replies:
    - -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
    - -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
  100 allow established related:
    - -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
  200 allow ssh:
    - -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT
  999 drop everything:
    - -P INPUT DROP
firewall_v4_group_rules: {}
firewall_v4_host_rules: {}

firewall_v6_flush_rules:
  - -F
  - -X
  - -t raw -F
  - -t raw -X
  - -t nat -F
  - -t nat -X
  - -t mangle -F
  - -t mangle -X
firewall_v6_default_rules:
  001 default policies:
    - -P INPUT ACCEPT
    - -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
    - -P FORWARD DROP
  002 allow loopback:
    - -A INPUT -i lo -s ::1/128 -d ::1/128 -j ACCEPT
  003 allow ping replies:
    - -A INPUT -p icmpv6 --icmpv6-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
    - -A OUTPUT -p icmpv6 --icmpv6-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
  100 allow established related:
    - -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
  200 allow ssh:
    - -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT
  999 drop everything:
    - -P INPUT DROP
firewall_v6_group_rules: {}
firewall_v6_host_rules: {}

The keys to the *_rules dictionaries, except the flush rules, can be anything. They are only used for rules ordering and overriding. On rules generation, the keys are sorted alphabetically. That's why I chose here the 001s and 999s.

Those defaults will generate the following script to be executed on the host (for ipv4):

#!/bin/sh
# Ansible managed: <redacted>

# flush rules
iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -t raw -F
iptables -t raw -X
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t nat -X
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -t mangle -X

# 001 default policies
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P FORWARD DROP

# 002 allow loopback
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -s 127.0.0.0/8 -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT

# 003 allow ping replies
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT

# 100 allow established related
iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

# 200 allow ssh
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT

# 999 drop everything
iptables -P INPUT DROP

As you can see, you have complete control over the rules syntax.

$ iptables -L -n on the host then shows...

Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT     icmp --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            icmptype 8
ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            tcp dpt:22

Chain FORWARD (policy DROP)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     icmp --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0            icmptype 0

Now that takes care of the default rules. What about overriding?

You can change the rules for specific hosts and groups instead of re-defining everything. Rules in firewall_v4_host_rules will be merged with firewall_v4_group_rules, and then the result will be merged back with the defaults. Same thing for ipv6.

This allows 3 levels of rules definition and overriding. I simply chose the names to match how the variable precedence works in Ansible (all -> group -> host). See the example playbook below to see rules overriding in action.

Example Playbook (ipv4)

- hosts: all
  roles:
    - mikegleasonjr.firewall

in group_vars/all.yml you could define the default rules for all your hosts:

firewall_v4_default_rules:
  001 default policies:
    - -P INPUT ACCEPT
    - -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
    - -P FORWARD DROP
  002 allow loopback:
    - -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
  003 allow ping replies:
    - -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
    - -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
  100 allow established related:
    - -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
  200 allow ssh limiting brute force:
    - -I INPUT -p tcp -d {{ hostvars[inventory_hostname]['ansible_eth1']['ipv4']['address'] }} --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -m recent --set
    - -I INPUT -p tcp -d {{ hostvars[inventory_hostname]['ansible_eth1']['ipv4']['address'] }} --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 4 -j DROP
  999 drop everything:
    - -P INPUT DROP

in group_vars/webservers.yml you would open up port 80:

firewall_v4_group_rules:
  400 allow web traffic:
    - -A INPUT -p tcp --dport http -j ACCEPT

in host_vars/secureweb.yml you would want to open https as well and remove ssh logins:

firewall_v4_host_rules:
  400 allow web traffic:
    - -A INPUT -p tcp --dport http -j ACCEPT    # need to redefine this one as well because the whole key is overwritten
    - -A INPUT -p tcp --dport https -j ACCEPT
  200 allow ssh limiting brute force: []

To "delete" rules, you just assign an empty list to an existing dictionary key.

To summarize, rules in firewall_v4_host_rules will overwrite rules in firewall_v4_group_rules, and then rules in firewall_v4_group_rules will overwrite rules in firewall_v4_default_rules.

You can play with the rules and see the generated script on the host at the following location: /etc/iptables.v4.generated and /etc/iptables.v6.generated.

Dependencies

none

License

BSD

Contributing

A vagrant environment has been provided to test the role on different distributions. Add your tests in tests.yml and...

$ vagrant up
$ vagrant provision

Author Information

Mike Gleason jr Couturier ([email protected])

Other roles from the same author:


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