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A repository to keep resources and configuration files used with my Kubernetes homelab.

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Quick Links

  1. Content of the Repository
  2. Homelab Network Diagram
  3. Network Configuration
  4. Homelab Infrastructure
  5. Deployment
  6. Upgrades
  7. Blog Posts
  8. Stargazers Over Time

Content of the Repository

  • alertmanager - configuration files to deploy Alertmanager.
  • ansible - Ansible playbooks to deploy Kubernetes homelab.
  • argocd - configuration files to deploy Argo CD.
  • calico - configuration files to deploy Calico CNI.
  • cka - CKA study notes.
  • dashboard - configuration files to deploy Kubernetes dashboard.
  • docs - images and documentation files.
  • grafana - configuration files to deploy Grafana.
  • httpd-healthcheck - configuration files deploy a simple httpd healthcheck for Istio ingressgateway.
  • istio - configuration files to deploy Istio.
  • istio-addons - configuration files to deploy Istio add-ons (e.g. Kiali).
  • kube-state-metrics - configuration files to deploy kube-state-metrics.
  • kubecost - configuration files to deploy Kubecost.
  • logging - configuration files to deploy Elastic Stack (Elasticsearch, Kibana etc).
  • metallb - configuration files to deploy MetalLB.
  • mikrotik-exporter - configuration files to deploy a Prometheus exporter for Mikrotik devices.
  • openvpn - configuration files to deploy OpenVPN server.
  • packer - configuration files build Qemu/KVM images with Packer.
  • pihole-exporter - configuration files to deploy a Prometheus exporter for Pi-hole Raspberry Pi ad blocker.
  • pii-demo - a demo PII application based on Apache, PHP and MySQL to test Istio's mTLS.
  • pii-demo-blue-green - a demo PII application based that uses blue/green deployment.
  • prometheus - configuration files to deploy Prometheus monitoring.
  • pxe - configuration files for PXE boot and Kickstart.
  • regcred - docker registry credentials.
  • speedtest-influxdb - configuration files to deploy a Speedtest service that stores results in InfluxDB.
  • terraform - configuration files to manage Kubernetes with Terraform.
  • truenas-nfs - configuration files to deploy democratic-csi with TrueNAS NFS.
  • velero - configuration files to deploy Velero backup software.
  • x509-certificate-exporter - configuration files to deploy x509-certificate-exporter.

Homelab Network Diagram

Homelab Network Diagram

Network Configuration

Network is configured as follows:

  • LAN:
  • Gateway:
  • DNS/DHCP/NTP/SMTP servers: and
  • Managed switch: currently no special config but a couple of VLANs to separate homelab devices from the rest of the home network.
  • PXE boot server:
  • DNS private zone: hl.test (a reserved top level DNS name .test, see rfc2606).
  • DHCP: range

Hostnames and their IP addresses:

Hostname IP Address Information OS
mikrotik.hl.test Mikrotik router RouterOS
admin1.hl.test DNS/DHCP master, NTP, SMTP, HAProxy master, Keepalived Rocky 8
admin2.hl.test DNS/DHCP slave, NTP, SMTP, HAProxy backup, Keepalived Rocky 8
switch.hl.test Managed switch N/A
truenas.hl.test TrueNAS Core shared storage server for Kubernetes TrueNAS Core 12
pi.hl.test RaspberryPi Pi-hole DNS ad blocker Raspbian
pxe.hl.test PXE boot server Rocky 8
kvm1.hl.test KVM hypervisor Rocky 8
kvm2.hl.test KVM hypervisor Rocky 8
kvm3.hl.test KVM hypervisor Rocky 8
kubelb.hl.test Virtual IP address for HAProxy/keepalived N/A
srv31.hl.test Kubernetes control plane Rocky 8
srv32.hl.test Kubernetes control plane Rocky 8
srv33.hl.test Kubernetes control plane Rocky 8
srv34.hl.test Kubernetes worker node Rocky 8
srv35.hl.test Kubernetes worker node Rocky 8
srv36.hl.test Kubernetes worker node Rocky 8

Homelab Infrastructure

Kubernetes environment runs on three KVM hypervisors. The goal is to maintain service in the event of a loss of a (single) host. This blog post explains how to build a multi-master Kubernetes homelab cluster by hand using KVM, PXE boot and kubeadm.

KVM Hosts


Commodity hardware is used to keep costs to a minimum.

Hostname CPU Cores RAM (MB) Storage OS
pxe.hl.test 4 8192 120GB SSD Rocky 8
kvm1.hl.test 8 22528 240GB SSD Rocky 8
kvm2.hl.test 8 18432 240GB SSD Rocky 8
kvm3.hl.test 8 18432 240GB SSD Rocky 8
truenas.hl.test 4 8192 240GB SSD, 2x 320GB HDDs in RAID 1 for storage pool TrueNAS Core 12
mikrotik.hl.test 1 128 128MB RouterOS
pi.hl.test 1 512 8GB Raspbian

Guest Provisioning

Previously, provisioning of KVM guests was done by using a PXE boot server with Kickstart templates.

I have since migrated to Packer to make the VM deployment process faster. PXE boot is still used to provision physical hosts (hypervisors).

Homelab PXE Boot

Shared Storage

A TrueNAS NFS server is used to create persistent volumes claims using democratic-csi.

TrueNAS Dashboard

Other Services

Homelab provides other services to Kubernetes that aren't covered here:


Velero is used to safely backup and restore Kubernetes cluster resources and persistent volumes.

Homelab Root CA

SSL certificates are signed by the homelab CA.

Create your own Certificate Authority (CA) for homelab environment. Run the following on Linux:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout homelab-ca.key -nodes -x509 -days 3650 -out homelab-ca.crt

Create a Kubernetes Wildcard Cert Signed by the Root CA

openssl genrsa -out "${DOMAIN}".key 2048 && chmod 0600 "${DOMAIN}".key
openssl req -new -sha256 -key "${DOMAIN}".key -out "${DOMAIN}".csr
openssl x509 -req -in "${DOMAIN}".csr -CA homelab-ca.crt -CAkey homelab-ca.key -CAcreateserial -out "${DOMAIN}".crt -days 1825 -sha256

Average Power Consumption


Monthly, the homelab costs (((170W * 24h) / 1000) * £0.27/kWh * 365days) / 12months = £33.50 (~44$).


The deployment section assumes that the homelab environment has been provisioned.

Ansible-defined Kubernetes Homelab

See ansible/

Use this to deploy Kubernetes cluster with Ansible.

Manage Kubernetes Homelab with Terraform

See terraform/

Use this to deploy various Kubernetes resources with Terraform.

Manage Kubernetes Homelab Manually

Install democratic-csi Shared Storage Driver

Democratic CSI implements the container storage interface spec providing storage for Kubernetes.

helm repo add democratic-csi
helm repo update

helm upgrade --install zfs-nfs \
  democratic-csi/democratic-csi \
  --namespace democratic-csi \
  --create-namespace \
  --version "0.11.1" \
  --values ./truenas-nfs/freenas-nfs.yaml

Install MetalLB

Update the config map metallb/metallb-config-map.yml and specify the IP address range. Deploy MetalLB network load-balancer:

kubectl apply -f ./metallb

Install Istio

The Istio namespace must be created manually.

kubectl create ns istio-system

The kubectl apply command may show transient errors due to resources not being available in the cluster in the correct order. If that happens, simply run the command again.

kubectl apply -f ./istio/istio-kubernetes.yml

Install httpd-healthcheck:

kubectl apply -f ./httpd-healthcheck

Install Istio add-on Prometheus:

kubectl apply -f ./istio-addons/prometheus

Install Istio add-on Kiali:

kubectl apply -f ./istio-addons/kiali

Create Monitoring Namespace

kubectl apply -f ./monitoring-ns-istio-injection-enabled.yml
kubectl apply -f ./monitoring-ns-with-istio

Install kube-state-metrics

Deploy kube-state-metrics:

kubectl apply -f ./kube-state-metrics

Install Prometheus

Create a secret called prometheus-cluster-name that contains the cluster name the Prometheus instance is running in:

kubectl -n monitoring create secret generic \
  prometheus-cluster-name --from-literal=CLUSTER_NAME=kubernetes-homelab

Deploy prometheus:

kubectl apply -f ./prometheus

Install Grafana

kubectl apply -f ./grafana

Install Alertmanager

Alertmanager uses the Incoming Webhooks feature of Slack, therefore you need to set it up if you want to receive Slack alerts.

Update the config map alertmanager/alertmanager-config-map.yml and specify your incoming webhook URL. Deploy alertmanager:

kubectl apply -f ./alertmanager

Install Mikrotik-exporter

Update the secret file mikrotik-exporter/mikrotik-exporter-secret.yml and specify your password for the Mikrotik API user. Deploy mikrotik-exporter:

kubectl apply -f ./mikrotik-exporter

Install Pi-hole Exporter

kubectl apply -f ./pihole-exporter

Install X509 Certificate Exporter

Deploy the Helm chart:

helm repo add enix

helm install x509-certificate-exporter \
  enix/x509-certificate-exporter \
  --namespace monitoring \
  --version "1.20.0" \
  --values ./x509-certificate-exporter/values.yml

Install Kubecost

kubectl create namespace kubecost

helm repo add kubecost

helm upgrade --install kubecost \
  kubecost/cost-analyzer \
  --namespace kubecost \
  --version "1.91.2" \
  --values ./kubecost/values.yaml

kubectl apply -f ./kubecost-service.yaml

Install ElasticSearch and Kibana

kubectl create namespace logging
kubectl apply -f ./logging/elastic-credentials-secret.yml
kubectl apply -f ./logging/elastic-certificates-secret.yml

helm repo add elastic

helm upgrade --install elasticsearch \
  elastic/elasticsearch \
  --namespace logging \
  --version "7.17.1" \
  --values ./logging/values-elasticsearch.yml

helm upgrade --install kibana \
  elastic/kibana \
  --namespace logging \
  --version "7.17.1" \
  --values ./logging/values-kibana.yml


Blog Posts

Stargazers Over Time

Stargazers over time

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