Awesome Open Source
Awesome Open Source

Maturity Models

Maturity Models

A maturity model is a business tool used to assess people/culture, processes/structures, and objects/technology.



Maturity model levels

Maturity model levels are typically a series of steps of sophistication such as:

  • Level 0: Not Applicable
  • Level 1: Initiate
  • Level 2: Develop
  • Level 3: Standardize
  • Level 4: Manage
  • Level 5: Orchestrate

Maturity model levels have a range of terminology in various industries such as:

  • Level 0: None, Never, Negligible, Not Applicable.
  • Level 1: Initiate, Investigate, Implicit, Individual-oriented, Informal-usage.
  • Level 2: Develop, Describe, Duplicate, Direct-oriented, Department-usage.
  • Level 3: Standardize, Specify, Scale, Service-oriented, Segment-usage
  • Level 4: Manage, Measure, Mainstream, Mission-oriented, Mass-usage.
  • Level 5: Orchestrate, Optimize, Ongoing, Opportunity-oriented, Organization-usage

Maturity model examples

We welcome examples of maturity models. If you know of a maturity model, please let us know by by creating a GitHub issue and/or a pull request.

General maturity models:

Topic maturity models:

Maturity model process perspectives

P3M3® describes process perspectives. These can be assessed at all maturity model levels.

  • Control Management: how well the organization maintains control of the initiatives currently ‘in flight’.
  • Benefits Management: how well the organization defines, tracks and ensures achievement of performance improvement from the investment.
  • Financial Management: how well the organization manages and controls the investment through business cases and budgetary control.
  • Stakeholder Management: how well the initiatives engage with and communicate with the external environment to minimize the negative implications engagement can achieve.
  • Organizational Governance: how well the organization controls the initiation and alignment of its investments with the corporate strategy.
  • Risk Management: how well the organization focuses on and mitigates the impact of threats and the leveraging of opportunities.
  • Resource Management: how well the organization develops its own talent and utilizes the opportunities from the supply chain to overcome peaks and troughs.

Top-down vs. bottom-up

Two approaches for designing maturity models exist:

  • Top-down approach: a fixed number of maturity stages or levels is specified first, then corroborated with characteristics (typically in form of specific assessment items) that support the initial assumptions about how maturity evolves.

  • Bottom-up approach: distinct characteristics or assessment items are determined first, then clustered in a second step into maturity levels to induce a more general view of the different steps of maturity evolution.

Modeling Maturing Levels

Modeling Maturity Levels is a classification system defined by Anneke Kleppe and Jos Warmer in their book MDA Explained Addison-Wesley. The levels characterize the role of modeling in a software project. The concept shows resemblance to the way software processes are rated with the Capability Maturity Model.


There are 6 levels:

  • Level 0: No Specification: the specification of software is not written down. It is kept in the minds of the developers

  • Level 1: Textual Specification: the software is specified by a natural language text (be it English or Chinese or something else), written down in one or more documents

  • Level 2: Text with Models: a textual specification is enhanced with several models to show some of the main structures of the system

  • Level 3: Models with Text: the specification of software is written down in one or more models. In addition to these models, natural language text is used to explain details, the background, and the motivation of the models, but the core of the specifications lies in the models.

  • Level 4: Precise Models: the specification of the software is written down in one or more models. Natural language can still be used to explain the background and motivation of the models, but it takes on the same role as comments in source code.

  • Level 5: Models only: the models are precise and detailed enough to allow complete code generation. The code generators at this level have become as trustworthy as compilers, therefore no developer needs to even look at the generated code.

Rebuttals to maturity models

Related assessment metrics

Get A Weekly Email With Trending Projects For These Topics
No Spam. Unsubscribe easily at any time.
Devops (3,802
Agile (424
Lean (353
Enterprise (303
Iac (291
Sysadmin (290
It (135
Related Projects