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Neco is a project to build and maintain highly automated on-premise data centers using Kubernetes at the center of its system. The project is led by a CNCF Silver member Cybozu which is also known as Kintone in the United States.

Neco is also the name of the architecture for systems built on the deliverables of the project.

Please read about Project Neco: Building Cloud Native On-Premise Data Centers.

Table of Contents:




The project consists of a lot of repositories including:

System overview


A Neco data center consists of a few (from 3 to 5) management servers called boot sever and thousands of servers for a Kubernetes cluster; pretty big, huh? In fact, Neco is designed to manage such large clusters.

Boot servers

Boot servers are symmetrical with each other except for host names and IP addresses.

All persistent data are stored in an etcd cluster. Thanks to etcd, adding or removing a boot server can be done easily.

Sabakan is a network boot server that supports DHCP and HTTP. It can also manage an inventory of Node servers and assign IP addresses automatically. Node servers should use UEFI HTTP boot to load Flatcar from sabakan.

CKE, or Cybozu Kubernetes Engines, is a CNCF certified Kubernetes installer. It queries Node server status to Sabakan and chooses Nodes to construct Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes. TLS certificates required for Kubernetes are issued by Vault.

Boot servers are set up using a custom Ubuntu installer. installer directory contains the tools to build the custom installer.

Neco Continuous Delivery System (Neco CD)

To bootstrap and maintain boot servers, a simple continuous delivery system called Neco CD is implemented in this repository.

Neco CD consists of these programs and artifacts:

  • neco-updater: a daemon to watch GitHub and notify neco-worker of new artifacts.
  • neco-worker: a daemon to install/update programs on a boot server.
  • neco: CLI tool to bootstrap and configure boot servers.
  • Neco debian package: archive of program binaries to be installed on boot servers.

Debian packages are built by CircleCI and released on GitHub releases.

Read docs/ for details.


A Kubernetes cluster created with CKE is a vanilla installation; it almost has nothing useful.

We have selected a set of applications such as MetalLB, Calico, or Teleport to make the vanilla Kubernetes fully featured. The manifests of the applications are maintained in neco-apps repository and continuously delivered by Argo CD.



Network of Neco is designed with these goals:

  • Bare-metal performance, i.e., no overlays like VXLAN
  • Scalability, especially for east-west traffic
  • Vendor neutrality

The data center network for Neco should employ leaf-spine topology. More specifically, each data center rack works as an autonomous system (AS) and exchanges routes with BGP.

Since BGP is a layer-3 routing protocol, use of layer-2 can be limited within a single rack.


Node BGP and redundancy

Kubernetes nodes need to route packets for Pods. Without overlay networking, this means that each node needs to advertise routing information. In Neco, each node runs BIRD to speak BGP and advertise routes for Pods.

For high availability, network links must be redundant. Therefore, Neco requires that each rack has two Top-of-Rack (ToR) switches and each server has two ethernet links. To reduce convergence time of BGP, BFD is used together.

This means that ToR switches and node servers in a rack are all BGP speakers and need to connect each other as iBGP peers. To make configurations simple and flexible, ToR switches are configured as route reflectors.

The two ToR switches are independent; each has its own managing subnet. As a result, each server has two IP addresses for each ToR switch. To tolerate single link or ToR switch failure, the server has another IP address called the node address with /32 netmask and advertises it via BGP.


DHCP and location of boot servers

UEFI HTTP Boot requires a DHCP server which requires layer-2 broadcast domain. Without DHCP relay servers, a dedicated server must be run as a boot server for each rack because layer-2 domain does not span racks.

If ToR switches can provide DHCP relay, this requirement can be relaxed.


Virtual data center

To make continuous delivery reliable enough, thorough and comprehensive system tests need to be performed. Since Neco is the system to bootstrap and maintain an on-premise data center, this means that the tests should do the same thing, that is, to bootstrap and maintain a data center!

To simulate an on-premise data center, we have created placemat, a tool to construct a virtual data center using containers, virtual machines and Linux network stacks.

The virtual data center implements the aforementioned leaf-spine networks with BGP routers. To create the virtual data center, run the following commands on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:smoser/swtpm
$ echo 'deb /' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/devel:kubic:libcontainers:stable.list
$ curl -fsSL | gpg --dearmor | sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/devel_kubic_libcontainers_stable.gpg > /dev/null
$ wget -O - | sudo apt-key add -
$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] focal stable"
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install -y build-essential systemd-container lldpd qemu qemu-kvm socat picocom swtpm cloud-utils bird2 squid chrony dnsmasq jq freeipmi-tools unzip skopeo fakeroot docker-ce docker-ce-cli
$ wget
$ wget
$ sudo install -m 0644 -b bios.bin bios-256k.bin /usr/share/seabios/
$ wget
$ sudo dpkg -i ./placemat2_2.2.0_amd64.deb
$ git clone
$ cd neco/dctest
$ make setup
$ make placemat
$ make test
  • To login a boot server in the virtual data center, run ./dcssh boot-0.
  • To stop and delete the virtual data center, run make stop.

The setup commands above are examined on a GCP VM based on the Ubuntu 20.04 disk image. Some more setup steps are needed for the GCP environment.

Large tests

dctest directory contains test suites to run large tests using the virtual data center. Details are described in docs/

Middle/Small tests

Other than large tests, this repository contains smaller tests that can be run as follows:

  1. Setup the environment by make setup. This is a one shot job.
  2. Run etcd by make start-etcd
  3. Run tests by go test -v -count 1 -race ./...
  4. Stop etcd by make stop-etcd


Other than Go packages, this repository has the following directories:

  • dctest/: Large tests using a virtual data center.
  • debian/: Ingredients for Debian package.
  • docs/: miscellaneous documentation.
  • etc/: Kubernetes manifests for networking and other configuration files.
  • ignitions/: Ignition template files.
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