RDFLib is a pure Python package for working with RDF. RDFLib contains most things you need to work with RDF, including:
The RDFlib community maintains many RDF-related Python code repositories with different purposes. For example:
Please see the list for all packages/repositories here:
5.x.ysupports Python 2.7 and 3.4+ and is mostly backwards compatible with 4.2.2. Only bug fixes will be applied.
6.x.yis the next major release which will support Python 3.6+. (Current master branch)
RDFLib may be installed with Python's package management tool pip:
$ pip install rdflib
Alternatively manually download the package from the Python Package Index (PyPI) at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/rdflib
The current version of RDFLib is 5.0.0, see the
file for what's new in this release.
With pip you can also install rdflib from the git repository with one of the following options:
$ pip install git+https://github.com/rdflib/[email protected] # or $ pip install -e git+https://github.com/rdflib/[email protected]#egg=rdflib
or from your locally cloned repository you can install it with one of the following options:
$ python setup.py install # or $ pip install -e .
RDFLib aims to be a pythonic RDF API. RDFLib's main data object is a
Graph which is a Python collection
of RDF Subject, Predicate, Object Triples:
To create graph and load it with RDF data from DBPedia then print the results:
import rdflib g = rdflib.Graph() g.load('http://dbpedia.org/resource/Semantic_Web') for s, p, o in g: print(s, p, o)
The components of the triples are URIs (resources) or Literals (values).
URIs are grouped together by namespace, common namespaces are included in RDFLib:
from rdflib.namespace import DC, DCTERMS, DOAP, FOAF, SKOS, OWL, RDF, RDFS, VOID, XMLNS, XSD
You can use them like this:
semweb = rdflib.URIRef('http://dbpedia.org/resource/Semantic_Web') type = g.value(semweb, rdflib.RDFS.label)
rdflib.RDFS is the RDFS Namespace,
graph.value returns an
object of the triple-pattern given (or an arbitrary one if more
Or like this, adding a triple to a graph
g.add(( rdflib.URIRef("http://example.com/person/nick"), FOAF.givenName, rdflib.Literal("Nick", datatype=XSD.string) ))
The triple (in n-triples notation)
<http://example.com/person/nick> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName> "Nick"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string> .
is created where the property
FOAF.giveName is the URI
XSD.string is the
You can bind namespaces to prefixes to shorten the URIs for RDF/XML, Turtle, N3, TriG, TriX & JSON-LD serializations:
g.bind("foaf", FOAF) g.bind("xsd", XSD)
This will allow the n-triples triple above to be serialised like this:
With these results:
PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> PREFIX xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> <http://example.com/person/nick> foaf:givenName "Nick"^^xsd:string .
New Namespaces can also be defined:
dbpedia = rdflib.Namespace('http://dbpedia.org/ontology/') abstracts = list(x for x in g.objects(semweb, dbpedia['abstract']) if x.language=='en')
See also ./examples
The library contains parsers and serializers for RDF/XML, N3, NTriples, N-Quads, Turtle, TriX, RDFa and Microdata. JSON-LD parsing/serializing can be achieved using the JSON-LD plugin.
The library presents a Graph interface which can be backed by any one of a number of Store implementations.
This core RDFLib package includes store implementations for in-memory storage and persistent storage on top of the Berkeley DB.
A SPARQL 1.1 implementation is included - supporting SPARQL 1.1 Queries and Update statements.
Multiple other projects are contained within the RDFlib "family", see https://github.com/RDFLib/.
See https://rdflib.readthedocs.io for our documentation built from the code.
For general "how do I..." queries, please use https://stackoverflow.com and tag your question with
See https://rdflib.dev for the release schedule.
RDFLib survives and grows via user contributions! Please read our contributing guide to get started. Please consider lodging Pull Requests here:
You can also raise issues here:
If you want to contact the rdflib maintainers, please do so via the rdflib-dev mailing list: