Appengine Java Standard

Google App Engine Standard Java runtime: Prod runtime, local devappserver, Cloud SDK Java components, GAE APIs, and GAE API emulators.
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Java8/11/17 Maven Code of conduct

Google App Engine Standard Environment Source Code for Java 8, Java 11 and Java 17.

This repository contains the Java Source Code for Google App Engine standard environment, the production runtime, the AppEngine APIs, and the local SDK.


Use a JDK8 environment, so it can build the Java8 GAE runtime.

jdk8, but using a JDK11 or JDK17 is also possible.

The shared code base is also used for GAE Java 11 and Java 17 build and test targets, using GitHub actions:


This repository is the open source mirror of the Google App Engine Java source code that was used to produce Maven artifacts and runtime jars. On Maven Central, the released artifacts from the internal source repository are using the versions like 1.9.xx. The open source release mechanism used with this GitHub repository is using the version starting at 2.0.x. Soon we will stop entirely pushing internal 1.9.xx artifacts and encourage all App Engine customers to use the new artifacts built from the GitHub project.


Orange items are public modules artifacts and yellow are internal ones. Modules ending with * are only used on the production server side.


App Engine Java APIs

Source code for all public APIs for* packages.

  • Maven pom.xml

    <packaging>war</packaging><!-- Servlet 3.1 WAR packaging-->

... appengine-api-1.0-sdk 2.0.12 javax.servlet javax.servlet-api 3.1 provided ... ```

  • Java 17 appengine-web.xml

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <appengine-web-app xmlns="">
  • Java 11 appengine-web.xml

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <appengine-web-app xmlns="">

App Engine Java Remote APIs

Source code for remote APIs for App Engine.

  • Servlet web.xml
     <display-name>Remote API Servlet</display-name>
  • Maven pom.xml
       <version>2.0.12</version><!-- Or later-->

User Visible Changes With Maven Builds

We moved and its old dependency javax.cache from appengine-api-1.0-sdk.jar to a new jar appengine-api-legacy.jar.

  • Latest Javadocs from this repository

    Users who depend on the moved classes will need to also include appengine-api-legacy.jar when they build/deploy. Separating these classes allows appengine-api-1.0-sdk users to choose any version of javax.cache rather than being constrained by an obsolete included version.

    • Maven pom.xml
       <version>2.0.12</version><!-- Or later-->

Local Unit Testing for Java 8, 11, 17

       <version>2.0.12</version><!-- Or later-->
       <version>2.0.12</version><!-- Or later-->
       <version>2.0.12</version><!-- Or later-->

App Engine Java local development implementation of the APIs

Implementation of all the App Engine APIs for local environment (devappserver) and local testing of an application before deployment.

App Engine Java various local development utilities and devappserver

Source code for the App Engine local dev application server and local utilities.

App Engine Java production runtime execution environment

Source code for the App Engine production application server and utilities. It is based on the Jetty9.4 Web Server.

Default entrypoint used by Java11 and Java17

The Java 11, Java 17 runtimes can benefit from extra user configuration when starting the JVM for web apps.

The default entrypoint used to boot the JVM is generated by App Engine Buildpacks. Essentially, it is equivalent to define this entrypoint in the appengine-web.xml file. For example:

java --add-opens java.base/java.lang=ALL-UNNAMED  --add-opens java.base/java.nio.charset=ALL-UNNAMED -showversion -Xms32M -Xmx204M -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:+ParallelRefProcEnabled -XX:+PrintCommandLineFlags -agentpath:/opt/cdbg/,--alsologtostderr=true,--cdbg_extra_class_path=/workspace/WEB-INF/classes:/workspace/WEB-INF/lib -Dclasspath.runtimebase=/base/java_runtime -Djava.class.path=/base/java_runtime/runtime-main.jar -Djava.library.path=/base/java_runtime: com/google/apphosting/runtime/JavaRuntimeMainWithDefaults --fixed_application_path=/workspace /base/java_runtime

We do not recommend changing this default entrypoint as the memory settings are calculated based on the instance type (F1, F2, F4) and memory available.

By default, we use --add-opens java.base/java.lang=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens java.base/java.nio.charset=ALL-UNNAMED to open some necessary JDK APIs.

Entry Point Features

The entry point for the Java 11, Java 17 runtimes can be customized with user-defined environment variables added in the appengine-web.xml configuration file.

The following table indicates the environment variables that can be used to enable/disable/configure features, and the default values if they are not set:

Env Var Description Type Default
CPROF_ENABLE Stackdriver Profiler boolean false
GAE_MEMORY_MB Available memory size Set by GAE or /proc/meminfo-400M
HEAP_SIZE_RATIO Memory for the heap percent 80
HEAP_SIZE_MB Available heap size ${HEAP_SIZE_RATIO}% of ${GAE_MEMORY_MB}
JAVA_GC_OPTS JVM GC args JVM args -XX:+UseG1GC plus configuration
JAVA_USER_OPTS JVM other args JVM args
JAVA_OPTS JVM args JVM args See below

If not explicitly set, JAVA_OPTS is defaulted to:

JAVA_OPTS:=-showversion \
           ${DBG_AGENT} \
           ${PROFILER_AGENT} \
           ${JAVA_HEAP_OPTS} \
           ${JAVA_GC_OPTS} \

When CPROF_ENABLE is true, the default entrypoint adds the PROFILER_AGENT as:


For example, if your application code needs more -add-opens flags, you can use the JAVA_USER_OPTS environment variable defined in the appengine-web.xml file:

     <env-var name="JAVA_USER_OPTS" value="--add-opens java.base/java.util=ALL-UNNAMED" />


Check out the contributing guide to learn how you can report issues and help make changes.

Always be sure to follow the Code of Conduct.

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