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Pi-PwnBox🚀-RogueAP📡

Homemade (headless) PwnBox / RogueAP based on Raspberry Pi & Alfa WiFi USB Adapters.

WiFi Hacking Cheatsheets & Mind Map 💡

Designed to be used for:

  • On-site Red Team engagements,
  • WiFi Security assessments,
  • WiFi Attacks practice.

Pi-PwnBox-RogueAP

Table of Contents

Equipment used

  • Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+
  • Micro SD Memory Card 64 Go
  • Raspberry Pi Case
  • Alfa WiFi USB Adapter AWUS036NEH
  • Alfa WiFi USB Adapter AWUS036ACH
  • BrosTrend WiFi USB Adapter AC1L AC1200 (can be replaced by any adapter supporting AP mode)
  • USB cable Male to Female
  • Rii Mini Wireless Keyboard (optional)
  • Powerbank

WiFi USB Adapters Overview

Device Chipset Usage 802.11 2.4 Ghz 5 Ghz Kali out-of-box Mon. Mode Injec-tion AP
Built-in Raspberry Pi 3 B+ WiFi chip Broadcom 43430 Connection to Internet (auto-start at boot if WiFi key added in config) 802.11 b/g/n/ac Y Y Y N* N* Y
BrosTrend AC1L AC1200 Realtek RTL8812AU Acces Point for Remote Access (auto-start at boot) 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac Y Y N Y N Y
Alfa AWUS036NEH Ralink RT2870/3070 WiFi Attacks 802.11 b/g/n Y N Y Y Y Y
Alfa AWUS036ACH Realtek RTL8812AU WiFi Attacks 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac Y Y Y Y Y Y

* would require nexmon patch to enable monitor mode and injection support on built-in Broadcom chip (but we do not need it for its usage here).

Installation

  1. Download Kali Linux ARM Image for Raspberry Pi: https://www.offensive-security.com/kali-linux-arm-images/

  2. Flash Kali Linux ARM Image for Rapberry Pi onto Micro SD Card.

  3. Make sure to have Internet connection on PwnBox.

  4. Download install scripts/configurations on the PwnBox:

    git clone https://github.com/koutto/pi-pwnbox-rogueap.git
    
  5. Important: Edit install script configuration at the top of scripts/install-system.shfile:

    • Choose Guacamole passwords.
    • Set WiFi interfaces persistent names based on their MAC addresses: wlxaabbccddeeff for a device with MAC address aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff.
    • Set MAC addresses of eth0 & wlan0 (built-in interfaces).
    • Set WiFi connection settings.
  6. Run install script (will pause at the end of each step in order to allow for manual inspection of command outputs)

    cd pi-pwnbox-rogueap/scripts
    ./install-system.sh
    
  7. Reboot & check correct configuration of network interfaces:

    ip a
    iwconfig
    
    • Built-in wired and wireless interfaces should be named eth0 and wlan0 respectively.
    • WiFi USB Adapters should use persistent naming (modern naming convention).
    • AP (PWNBOX_ADMIN) should be started on appropriate wlx*interface.
  8. Configure VNC-over-HTTP on Guacamole:

    1. Connect to Guacamole at http://<ip_pwnbox>:8080/guacamole/
    2. Go to guacadmin (top right) > Settings > Connections
    3. Click on New Connection
    4. Fill connection settings as follows:
      • Name = pwnbox-vnc
      • Location = ROOT
      • Protocol = VNC
      • Maximum number of connections = 3
      • Maximum number of connections = 3
      • Guacamole Proxy Hostname = 127.0.0.1
      • Guacamole Proxy Port = 4822
      • Network Hostname = 127.0.0.1
      • Network Port = 5901
      • Authentication Password = (password chosen at install when running install-system.sh)
      • Color depth = True color (32-bit)
  9. Change default credentials:

    • Kali system credentials
    • Guacamole credentials (via http://<ip_pwnbox>:8080/guacamole/#/manage/mysql/users/guacadmin)

PwnBox Network Configuration

Wireless Dedicated Administration Network

When booting, PwnBox automatically spawns an AP on one interface to allow for easy remote access:

  • SSID = PWNBOX_ADMIN (Hidden SSID)
  • WPA2 Passphrase (PSK) = Koutto!PwnB0x!
  • IP AP = 10.0.0.1 (when connected to this network, PwnBox can be accessed at this IP)
  • Network range = 10.0.0.1/24

LAN Network (Wireless or Wired)

When booting, PwnBox automatically connects to:

  • Wired network if Ethernet port is connected.

  • WiFi network (using built-in Raspberry Pi chip) if there is available wireless network with saved connection settings (in /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf). If you want to connect to a new WiFi network (not saved into PwnBox), it is necessary to add WPA passphrase of the network before:

    1. Access the PwnBox using another way, e.g.:

      • Use wireless dedicated administration network (most convenient approach),
      • Use wired network,
      • Use monitor + (wireless) keyboard.
    2. Add WPA passphrase to PwnBox local configuration:

      wpa_passphrase <SSID> <passphrase> >> /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
      
    3. Test connection:

      wpa_supplicant -B -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
      dhclient -v wlan0
      ping 8.8.8.8
      

PwnBox Remote Access

PwnBox can be controlled through:

  • SSH Service (22/tcp):

    ssh [email protected]<ip_pwnbox>
    
  • VNC-over-HTTP with Guacamole (8080/tcp):

    http://<ip_pwnbox>:8080/guacamole
    

PwnBox's IP depends on the network you want to access it from:

  • Via Wireless Dedicated Administration Network (i.e. connected to hidden SSID PWNBOX_ADMIN): IP is always 10.0.0.1.
  • Via LAN Network (wireless or wired): IP depends on the value allocated by DHCP server. IP can be found using netdiscoverfor example.

Note: Guacamole service might take a lot of resources (RAM) when running. If not used, it can be stopped using stop-guacamole.sh script.

Usage

  • Most of the time, only SSH access is necessary. (CLI tools).
  • Additional tools are installed into /usr/share.
  • Tools with GUI or requiring spawning of multiple xterm (e.g. airgeddon) can be run through Guacamole.
  • Tools with Web UI (e.g. Kismet, Bettercap) can be started and accessed remotely.

WiFi Hacking Cheatsheets & Mind Map

Possible Upgrade

  • Add 4G USB dongle for remote access to PwnBox using 4G cell network.

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