torchnet is a framework for torch which provides a set of abstractions aiming at encouraging code re-use as well as encouraging modular programming.
At the moment, torchnet provides four set of important classes:
Dataset
: handling and pre-processing data in various ways.Engine
: training/testing machine learning algorithm.Meter
: meter performance or any other quantity.Log
: output performance or any other string to file / disk in a consistent manner.For an overview of the torchnet framework, please also refer to this paper.
Please install torch first, following instructions on torch.ch. If torch is already installed, make sure you have an up-to-date version of argcheck, otherwise you will get weird errors at runtime.
Assuming torch is already installed, the torchnet core is only a set of lua files, so it is straightforward to install it with luarocks
luarocks install torchnet
To run the MNIST example from the paper, install the mnist
package:
luarocks install mnist
cd
into the installed torchnet
package directory and run:
th example/mnist.lua
Requiring torchnet returns a local variable containing all torchnet class constructors.
local tnt = require 'torchnet'
torchnet provides a variety of data containers, which can be easily plugged between each others, allowing the user to easily concat, split, batch, resample etc... datasets.
A instance dataset
of a tnt.Dataset()
implements two main methods:
dataset:size()
which returns the size of the dataset.dataset:get(idx)
where idx
is a number between 1 and the dataset size.While it is easy to iterate over a dataset with a for loop, several
DatasetIterator
iterators are nevertheless provided, allowing the user to
filter out some samples in an on-the-fly manner, or to parallelize easily
data fetching.
In torchnet, a sample returned by dataset:get()
is supposed to be a Lua
table
. Fields of the table can be arbitrary, even though many datasets
will only work with torch tensors.
Torchnet provides a set of util functions which are used all over torchnet.
This function do a deep copy of a table.
#### tnt.utils.table.merge(dst, src) ``` ({ dst = table -- src = table -- }) ```This function add to the destination table dest
, the
element contained in the source table source
.
The copy is shallow.
If a key exists in both tables, then the element in the source table is preferred.
({
tbl = table --
closure = function --
[recursive = boolean] -- [default=false]
})
This function applies the function defined by closure
to the
table tbl
.
If recursive
is given and set to true
, the closure
function
will be apply recursively to the table.
Check if a table can be merged into a tensor.
({
tbl = table --
})
Merge a table into a tensor in one extra dimension.
Torchnet provides a set of general data transformations. These transformations are either directly on the data (e.g., normalization) or on their structure. This is particularly handy when manipulating tnt.Dataset.
Most of the transformations are simple but can be composed or merged.
The identity transform takes any input and return it as it is.
For example, this function is useful when composing transformations on data from multiple sources, and some of the sources must not be transformed.
({
transforms = table --
})
This function takes a table
of functions and
composes them to return one transformation.
This function assumes that the table of transformations is indexed by contiguous ordered keys starting at 1. The transformations are composed in the ascending order.
For example, the following code:
> f = transform.compose{
[1] = function(x) return 2*x end,
[2] = function(x) return x + 10 end,
foo = function(x) return x / 2 end,
[4] = function(x) return x - x end
}
> f(3)
16
is equivalent to compose the transformations stored in [1] and [2], i.e., defining the following transformation:
> f = function(x) return 2*x + 10 end
Note that transformations stored with keys foo
and 4
are ignored.
({
transforms = table --
})
This function takes a table
of transformations and
merge them into one transformation.
Once apply to an input, this transformation will produce a table
of output,
containing the transformed input.
For example, the following code:
> f = transform.merge{
[1] = function(x) return 2*x end,
[2] = function(x) return x + 10 end,
foo = function(x) return x / 2 end,
[4] = function(x) return x - x end
}
produces a function which applies a set of transformations to the same input:
> f(3)
{
1 : 6
2 : 13
foo : 1.5
4 : 0
}
#### transform.tablenew()
This function creates a new table of functions from an existing table of functions.
({
transform = function --
})
This function applies a transformation to a table of input. It return a table of output of the same size as the input.
For example, the following code:
> f = transform.tableapply(function(x) return 2*x end)
produces a function which multiplies any input by 2:
> f({[1] = 1, [2] = 2, foo = 3, [4] = 4})
{
1 : 2
2 : 4
foo : 6
4 : 8
}
#### transform.tablemergekeys()
This function merges tables by key. More precisely, the input must be a
table
of table
and this function will reverse the table in order to
make the keys from the nested table accessible first.
For example, if the input is:
> x = { sample1 = {input = 1, target = "a"} , sample2 = {input = 2, target = "b", flag = "hard"}
Then apply this function will produce:
> transform.tablemergekeys(x)
{
input :
{
sample1 : 1
sample2 : 2
}
target :
{
sample1 : "a"
sample2 : "b"
}
flag :
{
sample2: "hard"
}
}
#### transform.makebatch([merge])
```
({
[merge = function] --
})
```
This function is used in many tnt.Dataset
to format
samples in the format used by the tnt.Engine
.
This function first merges keys to
produces a table of output. Then, transform this table into a tensor by
either using a merge
transformation provided by the user or by
simply concatenating the table into a tensor directly.
This function uses the compose transform to apply successive transformations.
({
size = number --
})
This function create a vector containing a permutation of the indices from 1 to size
.
This vector is a LongTensor
and size
must be a number.
Once the vector created, this function can be used to call a specific indices in it.
For example:
> p = transform.randperm(3)
creates a function p
which contains a permutation of indices:
> p(1)
2
> p(2)
1
> p(3)
3
#### transform.normalize([threshold])
```
({
[threshold = number] -- [default=0]
})
```
This function normalizes data, i.e., it removes its mean and divide it by its standard deviation.
The input must be a Tensor
.
Once create, a threshold
can be given (must be a number). Then,
the data will be divided by their standard deviation, only if this
deviation is greater than the threshold
. This is handy, if the
deviation is small and dividing by it could lead to instability.
({
self = tnt.ListDataset --
list = tds.Hash --
load = function --
[path = string] --
})
Considering a list
(can be a tds.Hash
, table
or a torch.LongTensor
) the
i-th sample of a dataset will be returned by load(list[i])
, where load()
is
a closure provided by the user.
If path
is provided, list is assumed to be a list of string, and will
each element list[i]
will prefixed by path/
when fed to load()
.
Purpose: many low or medium-scale datasets can be seen as a list of files (for example representing input samples). For this list of file, a target can be often inferred in a simple manner.
({
self = tnt.ListDataset --
filename = string --
load = function --
[maxload = number] --
[path = string] --
})
The file specified by filename
is interpreted as a list of strings (one
string per line). The i-th sample of a dataset will be returned by
load(line[i])
, where load()
is a closure provided by the user an
line[i]
is the i-the line of filename
.
If path
is provided, list is assumed to be a list of string, and will
each element list[i]
will prefixed by path/
when fed to load()
.
tnt.TableDataset
interfaces existing data
to torchnet. It is useful if you want to use torchnet on a small dataset.
The data must be contained in a tds.Hash
.
tnt.TableDataset
does a shallow copy of the data.
Data are loaded while constructing the tnt.TableDataset
:
> a = tnt.TableDataset{data = {1,2,3}}
> print(a:size())
3
tnt.TableDataset
assumes that table has contiguous keys starting at 1.
{
self = tnt.IndexedDataset --
fields = table --
[path = string] --
[maxload = number] --
[mmap = boolean] -- [default=false]
[mmapidx = boolean] -- [default=false]
[standalone = boolean] -- [default=false]
}
A tnt.IndexedDataset()
is a data structure built upon (possibly several)
data archives containing a bunch of tensors of the same type.
See tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter and tnt.IndexedDatasetReader to see how to create and read a single archive.
Purpose: large datasets (containing a lot of files) are often not very well
handled by filesystems (especially over network). tnt.IndexedDataset
provides a convenient and efficient way to bundle them into a single
archive file, associated with an indexed file.
If path
is provided, then fields
must be a Lua array (keys being
numbers), where values are string representing a filename prefix to a
(index,archive) pair. In other word path/field.{idx,bin}
must exist. The
i-th sample returned by this dataset will be a table containing each field
as key, and a tensor found at the corresponding archive at index i.
If path
is not provided, then fields
must be a Lua hash. Each key
represents sample fields and the corresponding value must be a table
containing the keys idx
(for the index filename path) and bin
(for the
archive filename path).
If provided (and positive), maxload
limits the dataset size to the
specified size.
Archives and/or indexes can also be memory mapped with the mmap
and
mmapidx
flags.
If standalone
is true, the constructor expects only one field to be
provided. The i-th sample returned by the dataset will be the item found at
the archive at index i. This is particularly useful with table
archives.
Creates a (archive,index) file pair. The archive will contain tensors of the same specified type
.
type
must be a string chosen in {byte
, char
, short
, int
, long
, float
, double
or table
}.
indexfilename
is the full path to the index file to be created.
datafilename
is the full path to the data archive file to be created.
Tensors are added to the archive with add().
Note that you must call close() to ensure all data is written on disk and to create the index file.
The type table
is special: data will be stored into a CharTensor,
serialized from a Lua table object. IndexedDatasetReader will then
deserialize the CharTensor into a table at read time. This allows storing
heterogenous data easily into an IndexedDataset.
({
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter --
indexfilename = string --
datafilename = string --
})
Opens an existing (archive,index) file pair for appending. The tensor type is inferred from the provided index file.
indexfilename
is the full path to the index file to be opened.
datafilename
is the full path to the data archive file to be opened.
Add a tensor to the archive and record its index position. The tensor type must of the same type
than the one specified at the creation of the tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter
.
({
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter --
filename = string --
})
Convenience method which given a filename
will open the corresponding
file in binary
mode, and reads all data in there as if it was of the type
specified at the tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter
construction. A corresponding
tensor is then added to the archive/index pair.
(
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter --
table = table --
)
Convenience method only available for table
type IndexedDataset.
The table will be serialized into a CharTensor.
({
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter --
})
Finalize the index, and Close the archive/index filename pair. This method must be called to ensure the index is written and all the archive data is flushed on disk.
({
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetReader --
indexfilename = string --
datafilename = string --
[mmap = boolean] -- [default=false]
[mmapidx = boolean] -- [default=false]
})
Reads an archive/index pair previously created by tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter.
indexfilename
is the full path to the index file.
datafilename
is the full path to the archive file.
Memory mapping can be specified for both the archive and index through the
optional mmap
and mmapidx
flags.
Returns the number of tensors present in the archive.
Returns the tensor at the specified index
in the archive.
({
self = tnt.TransformDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
transform = function --
[key = string] --
})
Given a closure transform()
, and a dataset
, tnt.TransformDataset
applies the closure in an on-the-fly manner when querying a sample with
tnt.Dataset:get()
.
If key is provided, the closure is applied to the sample field specified
by key
(only). The closure must return the new corresponding field value.
If key is not provided, the closure is applied on the full sample. The closure must return the new sample table.
The size of the new dataset is equal to the size of the underlying dataset
.
Purpose: when performing pre-processing operations, it is convenient to be able to perform on-the-fly transformations to a dataset.
({
self = tnt.TransformDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
transforms = table --
})
Given a set of closures and a dataset
, tnt.TransformDataset
applies
these closures in an on-the-fly manner when querying a sample with
tnt.Dataset:get()
.
Closures are provided in transforms
, a Lua table, where a (key,value)
pair represents a (sample field name, corresponding closure to be applied
to the field name).
Each closure must return the new value of the corresponding field.
({
self = tnt.BatchDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
batchsize = number --
[perm = function] -- [has default value]
[merge = function] --
[policy = string] -- [default=include-last]
[filter = function] -- [has default value]
})
Given a dataset
, tnt.BatchDataset
merges samples from this dataset to
form a new sample which can be interpreted as a batch (of size
batchsize
).
The merge
function controls how the batch is performed. It is a closure
taking a Lua array as input containing all occurrences (for a given batch)
of a field of the sample, and returning the aggregated version of these
occurrences. By default the occurrences are supposed to be tensors, and
they aggregated along the first dimension.
More formally, if the i-th sample of the underlying dataset is written as:
{input=<input_i>, target=<target_i>}
assuming only two fields input
and target
in the sample, then merge()
will be passed tables of the form:
{<input_i_1>, <input_i_2>, ... <input_i_n>}
or
{<target_i_1>, <target_i_2>, ... <target_i_n>}
with n
being the batch size.
It is often important to shuffle examples while performing the batch
operation. perm(idx, size)
is a closure which returns the shuffled index
of the sample at position idx
in the underlying dataset. For convenience,
the size
of the underlying dataset is also passed to the closure. By
default, the closure is the identity.
The underlying dataset size might or might not be always divisible by
batchsize
. The optional policy
string specify how to handle corner
cases:
include-last
makes sure all samples of the underlying dataset will be seen, batches will be of size equal or inferior to batchsize
.skip-last
will skip last examples of the underlying dataset if its size is not properly divisible. Batches will be always of size equal to batchsize
.divisible-only
will raise an error if the underlying dataset has not a size divisible by batchsize
.Purpose: the concept of batch is problem dependent. In torchnet, it is up
to the user to interpret a sample as a batch or not. When one wants to
assemble samples from an existing dataset into a batch, then
tnt.BatchDataset
is suited for the job. Sometimes it is however more
convenient to write a dataset from scratch providing "batched" samples.
({
self = tnt.CoroutineBatchDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
batchsize = number --
[perm = function] -- [has default value]
[merge = function] --
[policy = string] -- [default=include-last]
[filter = function] -- [has default value]
})
Given a dataset
, tnt.CoroutineBatchDataset
merges samples from this dataset
to form a new sample which can be interpreted as a batch (of size batchsize
).
It behaves the same and has the same arguments as tnt.BatchDataset
(see the
documentation there for additional details), with one important distinction:
it allows the underlying dataset to postpone returning the individual samples
once by doing a call to coroutine.yield()
(from the underlying dataset).
This is useful when using datasets that are inefficient or slow when they need
to provide the required sample immediately after a call to dataset:get()
. The
general pattern of code in the underlying dataset:get()
would be:
FooDataset.get = function(self, idx)
prepare(idx) -- stores sample in self.__data[idx]
coroutine.yield()
return self.__data[idx]
end
Herein, the function prepare(idx)
can implement, for instance, a buffering of
indices before actually fetching them.
{
self = tnt.ConcatDataset --
datasets = table --
}
Given a Lua array (datasets
) of tnt.Dataset, concatenates
them into a single dataset. The size of the new dataset is the sum of the
underlying dataset sizes.
Purpose: useful to assemble different existing datasets, possibly large-scale datasets as the concatenation operation is done in an on-the-fly manner.
Given a dataset
, creates a new dataset which will (re-)sample from this
underlying dataset using the provided sampler(dataset, idx)
closure.
If size
is provided, then the newly created dataset will have the
specified size
, which might be different than the underlying dataset
size.
If size
is not provided, then the new dataset will have the same size
than the underlying one.
By default sampler(dataset, idx)
is the identity, simply return
ing idx
.
dataset
corresponds to the underlying dataset provided at construction, and
idx
may take a value between 1 to size
. It must return an index in the range
acceptable for the underlying dataset.
Purpose: shuffling data, re-weighting samples, getting a subset of the data. Note that an important sub-class is (tnt.ShuffleDataset), provided for convenience.
({
self = tnt.ShuffleDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
[size = number] --
[replacement = boolean] -- [default=false]
})
tnt.ShuffleDataset
is a sub-class of
tnt.ResampleDataset provided for convenience.
It samples uniformly from the given dataset
with, or without
replacement
. The chosen partition can be redrawn by calling
resample().
If replacement
is true
, then the specified size
may be larger than
the underlying dataset
.
If size
is not provided, then the new dataset size will be equal to the
underlying dataset
size.
Purpose: the easiest way to shuffle a dataset!
The permutation associated to tnt.ShuffleDataset
is fixed, such that two
calls to the same index will return the same sample from the underlying
dataset.
Call resample()
to draw randomly a new permutation.
({
self = tnt.SplitDataset --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
partitions = table --
[initialpartition = string] --
})
Partition a given dataset
, according to the specified partitions
. Use
the method select() to select the current partition
in use.
The Lua hash table partitions
is of the form (key, value) where key is a
user-chosen string naming the partition, and value is a number representing
the weight (as a number between 0 and 1) or the size (in number of samples)
of the corresponding partition.
Partioning is achieved linearly (no shuffling). See tnt.ShuffleDataset if you want to shuffle the dataset before partitioning.
The optional variable initialpartition
specifies the partition that is loaded
initially.
Purpose: useful in machine learning to perform validation procedures.
({
self = tnt.SplitDataset --
partition = string --
})
Switch the current partition in use to the one specified by partition
,
which must be a string corresponding to one of the names provided at
construction.
The current dataset size changes accordingly, as well as the samples returned
by the get()
method.
It is easy to iterate over datasets using a for loop. However, sometimes one wants to filter out samples in a on-the-fly manner or thread sample fetching.
Iterators are here for this particular cases. In general, refrain from writing
iterators for handling custom cases, and write instead a tnt.Dataset
Iterators implement two methods:
run()
which returns a Lua iterator usable in a for loop.exec(funcname, ...)
which execute a given funcname on the underlying dataset.Typical usage is achieved with a for loop:
for sample in iterator:run() do
<do something with sample>
end
Iterators implement the __call
event, so one might also use the ()
operator:
for sample in iterator() do
<do something with sample>
end
#### tnt.DatasetIterator(self, dataset[, perm][, filter][, transform])
```
({
self = tnt.DatasetIterator --
dataset = tnt.Dataset --
[perm = function] -- [has default value]
[filter = function] -- [has default value]
[transform = function] -- [has default value]
})
```
The default dataset iterator.
perm(idx)
is a permutation used to shuffle the examples. If shuffling
is needed, one can use this closure, or (better) use
tnt.ShuffleDataset on the underlying dataset.
filter(sample)
is a closure which returns true
if the given sample
should be considered or false
if not.
transform(sample)
is a closure which can perform online transformation of
samples. It returns a modified version of the given sample
. It is the
identity by default. It is often more interesting to use
tnt.TransformDataset for that purpose.
Execute the given method name
on the underlying dataset, passing it the
subsequent arguments, and returns what the name
method returns.
({
self = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator --
[init = function] -- [has default value]
closure = function --
nthread = number --
[perm = function] -- [has default value]
[filter = function] -- [has default value]
[transform = function] -- [has default value]
[ordered = boolean] -- [default=false]
})
Allows to iterate over a dataset in a thread
manner. tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator:run()
guarantees that all samples
will be seen, but does not guarantee the order unless ordered
is set to true.
The purpose of this class is to have a zero pre-processing cost. When reading datasets on the fly from disk (not loading them fully in memory), or performing complex pre-processing this can be of interest.
The number of threads used to parallelize is specified by nthread
.
init(threadid)
(where threadid=1..nthread) is a closure which may
initialize the specified thread as needed, if needed. It is doing nothing
by default.
closure(threadid)
will be called on each thread and must return a
tnt.Dataset
instance.
perm(idx)
is a permutation used to shuffle the examples. If shuffling is
needed, one can use this closure, or (better) use
tnt.ShuffleDataset on the underlying dataset
(returned by closure()
).
filter(sample)
is a closure which returns true
if the given sample
should be considered or false
if not. Note that filter is called after
fetching the data in a threaded manner.
transform(sample)
is a function which maps the given sample to a new value.
This transformation occurs before filtering.
When ordered
is set to true the ordering of samples returned by the iterator
is guaranteed. This option is particularly useful for repeatable experiments.
By default ordered
is false, which means that order is not guaranteed by
run()
(though often the ordering is similar in practice).
A common error raised by this dataset is when closure()
is not
serializable. Make sure that all upvalues of closure()
are
serializable. It is recommended to avoid upvalues at all cost,
and to make sure you require all the appropriate torch packages needed to (de-)serialize
closure()
in the init()
function.
For more information, check out the threads package,
on which tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator
relies.
Execute the given method name
on the dataset corresponding to the first
available thread, passing it the subsequent arguments, and returns what the
name
method returns.
For example:
local iterator = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator{...}
print(iterator:execSingle("size"))
will print the size of the dataset loaded in the first available thread.
Execute the given method name
on the underlying datasets in each thread,
passing to each of them the subsequent arguments, and returns a table
of what the name
method returns for each thread.
For example:
local iterator = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator{...}
for _, v in pairs(iterator:exec("size")) do
print(v)
end
will print the size of the datasets loaded in each thread.
In experimenting with different models and datasets, the underlying training
procedure is often the same. The Engine
module provides the boilerplate logic
necessary for the training and testing of models. This might include conducting
the interaction between model (nn.Module
), tnt.DatasetIterator
s,
nn.Criterion
s, and tnt.Meter
s.
An instance engine
of a tnt.Engine()
implements two main methods:
engine:train()
, for training the model on data
(i.e. sample data, forward prop, backward prop).engine:test()
, for evaluating a model on data
(optionally with respect to a nn.Criterion
).The Engine
can be implemented for any common underlying training and testing
procedure involving a model and data. It can also be designed to allow user
control after certain events such as forward prop, criterion evaluation, or the
end of an epoch, by using coroutines (see tnt.SGDEngine
).
The SGDEngine
module implements the Stochastic Gradient Descent training
procedure in train
, including data sampling, forward prop, back prop, and
parameter updates. It also operates as a coroutine allowing a user control
(i.e. increment some sort of tnt.Meter
) at events such as 'start',
'start-epoch', 'forward', 'forward-criterion', 'backward', etc.
The available hooks are the following:
hooks = {
['onStart'] = function() end, -- Right before training
['onStartEpoch'] = function() end, -- Before new epoch
['onSample'] = function() end, -- After getting a sample
['onForward'] = function() end, -- After model:forward
['onForwardCriterion'] = function() end, -- After criterion:forward
['onBackwardCriterion'] = function() end, -- After criterion:backward
['onBackward'] = function() end, -- After model:backward
['onUpdate'] = function() end, -- After UpdateParameters
['onEndEpoch'] = function() end, -- Right before completing epoch
['onEnd'] = function() end, -- After training
}
To specify a new closure for a given hook, we can access to it with
engine.hooks.<onEvent>
. For example, we could reset a Meter
before every
epoch by:
local engine = tnt.SGDEngine()
local meter = tnt.AverageValueMeter()
engine.hooks.onStartEpoch = function(state)
meter:reset()
end
Accordingly, train
requires a network (nn.Module
), a criterion expressing the
loss function (nn.Criterion
), a dataset iterator (tnt.DatasetIterator
), and a
learning rate, at the minimum. The test
function allows for simple evaluation
of a model on a dataset.
A state
is maintained for external access to outputs and parameters of modules
as well as sampled data. The content of the state
table is the following, where
the passed values come from the arguments of engine:train()
:
state = {
['network'] = network,
['criterion'] = criterion,
['iterator'] = iterator,
['lr'] = lr,
['lrcriterion'] = lrcriterion,
['maxepoch'] = maxepoch,
['sample'] = {},
['epoch'] = 0, -- epoch done so far
['t'] = 0, -- samples seen so far
['training'] = true
}
The OptimEngine
module wraps the optimization functions from
https://awesomeopensource.com/project/torch/optim. At the start of training, the engine will call
getParameters
on the provided network.
The train
method requires the following parameters in addition to the
SGDEngine.train
parameters:
optimMethod
the optimization function (e.g optim.sgd
)config
a table with configuration parameters for the optimizerExample:
local engine = tnt.OptimEngine()
engine:train{
network = model,
criterion = criterion,
iterator = iterator,
optimMethod = optim.sgd,
config = {
learningRate = 0.1,
momentum = 0.9,
},
}
When training a model, you generally would like to measure how the model is performing. Specifically, you may want to measure the average processing time required per batch of data, the classification error or AUC of a classifier a validation set, or the [email protected] of a retrieval model.
Meters provide a standardized way to measure a range of different measures, which makes it easy to measure a wide range of properties of your models.
Nearly all meters (except tnt.TimeMeter
) implement three methods:
add()
which adds an observation to the meter.value()
which returns the value of the meter, taking into account all observations.reset()
which removes all previously added observations, resetting the meter.The exact input arguments to the add()
method vary depending on the meter.
Most meters define the method as add(output, target)
, where output
is the
output produced by the model and target
is the ground-truth label of the data.
The value()
method is parameterless for most meters, but for measures that
have a parameter (such as the k parameter in [email protected]), they may take an
input argument.
An example of a typical usage of a meter is as follows:
local meter = tnt.<Measure>Meter() -- initialize meter
for state, event in tnt.<Optimization>Engine:train{
network = network,
criterion = criterion,
iterator = iterator,
} do
if state == 'start-epoch' then
meter:reset() -- reset meter
elseif state == 'forward-criterion' then
meter:add(state.network.output, sample.target) -- add value to meter
elseif state == 'end-epoch' then
print('value of meter:' .. meter:value()) -- get value of meter
end
end
#### tnt.APMeter(self)
```
({
self = tnt.APMeter --
})
```
The tnt.APMeter
measures the average precision per class.
The tnt.APMeter
is designed to operate on NxK
Tensors output
and
target
, and optionally a Nx1
Tensor weight where (1) the output
contains
model output scores for N
examples and K
classes that ought to be higher
when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively labeled,
and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively labeled
(for instance, the output of a sigmoid function); (2) the target
contains
only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples); and (3)
the weight
( > 0) represents weight for each sample.
The tnt.APMeter
has no parameters to be set.
({
self = tnt.AverageValueMeter --
})
The tnt.AverageValueMeter
measures and returns the average value and the
standard deviation of any collection of numbers that are add
ed to it. It is
useful, for instance, to measure the average loss over a collection of examples.
The add()
function expects as input a Lua number value
, which is the value
that needs to be added to the list of values to average. It also takes as input
an optional parameter n
that assigns a weight to value
in the average, in
order to facilitate computing weighted averages (default = 1).
The tnt.AverageValueMeter
has no parameters to be set at initialization time.
({
self = tnt.AUCMeter --
})
The tnt.AUCMeter
measures the area under the receiver-operating characteristic
(ROC) curve for binary classification problems. The area under the curve (AUC)
can be interpreted as the probability that, given a randomly selected positive
example and a randomly selected negative example, the positive example is
assigned a higher score by the classification model than the negative example.
The tnt.AUCMeter
is designed to operate on one-dimensional Tensors output
and target
, where (1) the output
contains model output scores that ought to
be higher when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively
labeled, and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively
labeled (for instance, the output of a sigmoid function); and (2) the target
contains only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples).
The tnt.AUCMeter
has no parameters to be set.
{
self = tnt.ConfusionMeter --
k = number --
[normalized = boolean] -- [default=false]
}
The tnt.ConfusionMeter
constructs a confusion matrix for a multi-class
classification problems. It does not support multi-label, multi-class problems:
for such problems, please use tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter
.
At initialization time, the k
parameter that indicates the number
of classes in the classification problem under consideration must be specified.
Additionally, an optional parameter normalized
(default = false
) may be
specified that determines whether or not the confusion matrix is normalized
(that is, it contains percentages) or not (that is, it contains counts).
The add(output, target)
method takes as input an NxK tensor output
that
contains the output scores obtained from the model for N examples and K classes,
and a corresponding N-tensor or NxK-tensor target
that provides the targets
for the N examples. When target
is an N-tensor, the targets are assumed to be
integer values between 1 and K. When target is an NxK-tensor, the targets are
assumed to be provided as one-hot vectors (that is, vectors that contain only
zeros and a single one at the location of the target value to be encoded).
The value()
method has no parameters and returns the confusion matrix in a
KxK tensor. In the confusion matrix, rows correspond to ground-truth targets and
columns correspond to predicted targets.
({
self = tnt.mAPMeter --
})
The tnt.mAPMeter
measures the mean average precision over all classes.
The tnt.mAPMeter
is designed to operate on NxK
Tensors output
and
target
, and optionally a Nx1
Tensor weight where (1) the output
contains
model output scores for N
examples and K
classes that ought to be higher
when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively labeled,
and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively labeled
(for instance, the output of a sigmoid function); (2) the target
contains
only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples); and (3)
the weight
( > 0) reprsents weight for each sample.
The tnt.mAPMeter
has no parameters to be set.
({
self = tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter --
windowsize = number --
})
The tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter
measures and returns the average value
and the standard deviation of any collection of numbers that are add
ed to it
within the most recent moving average window. It is useful, for instance,
to measure the average loss over a collection of examples within the
most recent window.
The add()
function expects as input a Lua number value
, which is the value
that needs to be added to the list of values to average.
The tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter
needs the moving window size to be set at
initialization time.
{
self = tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter --
k = number --
[normalized = boolean] -- [default=true]
}
The tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter
constructs a confusion matrix for multi-
label, multi-class classification problems. In constructing the confusion
matrix, the number of positive predictions is assumed to be equal to the number
of positive labels in the ground-truth. Correct predictions (that is, labels in
the prediction set that are also in the ground-truth set) are added to the
diagonal of the confusion matrix. Incorrect predictions (that is, labels in the
prediction set that are not in the ground-truth set) are equally divided over
all non-predicted labels in the ground-truth set.
At initialization time, the k
parameter that indicates the number
of classes in the classification problem under consideration must be specified.
Additionally, an optional parameter normalized
(default = false
) may be
specified that determines whether or not the confusion matrix is normalized
(that is, it contains percentages) or not (that is, it contains counts).
The add(output, target)
method takes as input an NxK tensor output
that
contains the output scores obtained from the model for N examples and K classes,
and a corresponding NxK-tensor target
that provides the targets for the N
examples using one-hot vectors (that is, vectors that contain only zeros and a
single one at the location of the target value to be encoded).
The value()
method has no parameters and returns the confusion matrix in a
KxK tensor. In the confusion matrix, rows correspond to ground-truth targets and
columns correspond to predicted targets.
{
self = tnt.ClassErrorMeter --
[topk = table] -- [has default value]
[accuracy = boolean] -- [default=false]
}
The tnt.ClassErrorMeter
measures the classification error (in %) of
classification models (zero-one loss). The meter can also measure the error of
predicting the correct label among the top-k scoring labels (for instance, in
the Imagenet competition, one generally measures [email protected] errors).
At initialization time, it takes to optional parameters: (1) a table
topk
that contains the values at which the [email protected] errors should be
measures (default = {1}); and (2) a boolean accuracy
that makes the meter
output accuracies instead of errors (accuracy = 1 - error).
The add(output, target)
method takes as input an NxK-tensor output
that
contains the output scores for each of the N examples and each of the K classes,
and an N-tensor target
that contains the targets corresponding to each of the
N examples (targets are integers between 1 and K). If only one example is
add
ed, output
may also be a K-tensor and target a 1-tensor.
Please note that topk
(if specified) may not contain values larger than K.
The value()
returns a table with the [email protected] errors for all values
at k that were specified in topk
at initialization time. Alternatively,
value(k)
returns the [email protected] error as a number; only values of k
that were element of topk
are allowed. If accuracy
was set to true
at
initialization time, the value()
method returns accuracies instead of errors.
({
self = tnt.TimeMeter --
[unit = boolean] -- [default=false]
})
The tnt.TimeMeter
is designed to measure the time between events and can be
used to measure, for instance, the average processing time per batch of data.
It is different from most other meters in terms of the methods it provides:
At initialization time, an optional boolean parameter unit
may be provided
(default = false
). When set to true
, the value returned by the meter
will be divided by the number of times that the incUnit()
method is called.
This allows the user to compute, for instance, the average processing time per
batch by simply calling the incUnit()
method after processing a batch.
The tnt.TimeMeter
provides the following methods:
reset()
resets the timer, setting the timer and unit counter to zero.stop()
stops the timer.resume()
resumes the timer.incUnit()
increments the unit counter by one.value()
returns the time passed since the last reset()
; divided by the counter value when unit=true
.The tnt.PrecisionAtKMeter
measures the [email protected] of ranking methods at pre-specified
levels k. The [email protected] is the percentage of the k front-ranked
items according to the model that is in the list of correct (positive) targets.
At initialization time, a table topk
may be given as input that specifies the
levels k at which the [email protected] will be measures (default = {10}
). In
addition, a number dim
may be provided that specifies over which dimension the
[email protected] should be computed (default = 2), and a boolean online
may be
specified that indicates whether we see all inputs along dimension dim
at once
(default = false
).
The add(output, target)
method takes two inputs. In the default mode (dim=2
and online=false
), the inputs mean:
target
tensor that encodes which of the C classes
(documents) are actually relevant to the the N-th input (query). For
instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1} indicates that the example is associated
with classes 2 and 4.The result of setting dim
to 1
is identical to transposing the tensors
output
and target
in the above. The result of setting online=true
is that
the function assumes that it is not the number of queries N
that is growing
with repeated calls to add()
, but the number of candidate documents C
. (Use
this mode in scenarios where C
is large but N
is small.)
The value()
method returns a table that contains the [email protected] (that is, the
percentage of targets predicted correctly) at the cutoff levels in topk
that
were specified at initialization time. Alternatively, the [email protected] at
a specific level k can be obtained by calling value(k)
. Note that the level
k
should be an element of the table topk
specified at initialization time.
Please note that the maximum value in topk
cannot be higher than the total
number of classes (documents).
{
self = tnt.RecallMeter --
[threshold = table] -- [has default value]
[perclass = boolean] -- [default=false]
}
The tnt.RecallMeter
measures the recall of ranking methods at pre-
specified thresholds. The recall is the percentage of the correct (positive)
targets that is in the list of positively labeled items according to the model.
At initialization time, the tnt.RecallMeter
provides two optional
parameters. The first parameter is a table threshold
that contains all
thresholds at which the recall is measured (default = {0.5}). Thresholds
should be numbers between 0 and 1. The second parameter is a boolean perclass
that makes the meter measure the recall per class when set to true
(default = false
). When perclass
is set to false
, the recall is simply
averaged over all examples.
The add(output, target)
method takes two inputs:
output
should all be one.target
tensor that encodes which of the K classes
are associated with the N-th input. For instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1}
indicates that the example is associated with classes 2 and 4.The value()
method returns a table containing the recall of the model
predictions measured at the threshold
s specified at initialization time. The
value(t)
method returns the recall at a particular threshold t
. Note that
this threshold t
should be an element of the threshold
table specified at
initialization time of the meter.
{
self = tnt.PrecisionMeter --
[threshold = table] -- [has default value]
[perclass = boolean] -- [default=false]
}
The tnt.PrecisionMeter
measures the precision of ranking methods at pre-
specified thresholds. The precision is the percentage of the positively labeled
items according to the model that is in the list of correct (positive) targets.
At initialization time, the tnt.PrecisionMeter
provides two optional
parameters. The first parameter is a table threshold
that contains all
thresholds at which the precision is measured (default = {0.5}). Thresholds
should be numbers between 0 and 1. The second parameter is a boolean perclass
that makes the meter measure the precision per class when set to true
(default = false
). When perclass
is set to false
, the precision is simply
averaged over all examples.
The add(output, target)
method takes two inputs:
output
should all be one.target
tensor that encodes which of the K classes
are associated with the N-th input. For instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1}
indicates that the example is associated with classes 2 and 4.The value()
method returns a table containing the precision of the model
predictions measured at the threshold
s specified at initialization time. The
value(t)
method returns the precision at a particular threshold t
. Note that
this threshold t
should be an element of the threshold
table specified at
initialization time of the meter.
{
self = tnt.NDCGMeter --
[K = table] -- [has default value]
}
The tnt.NDCGMeter
measures the normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) of
a ranking produced by a model at prespecified levels k, and averages the NDCG
over all examples.
The discounted cumulative gain at level k is defined as:
DCG_k = rel_1 + \sum{i = 2}^k (rel_i / log_2(i))
Herein, rel_i is the relevance of item i as specified by an external rater. Defining ideal DCG (IDCG) as the best possible DCG for a given example, the NDCG at level k is defined as:
NDCG_k = DCG_k / IDCG_k
At initialization time, the meter takes as input a table K
that contains all
the levels k at which the NDCG is computed.
The add(output, relevance)
method takes as input (1) a NxC tensor of model
outputs
, which scores for all C possible outputs for a batch of N examples;
and (2) a NxC tensor relevance
that contains the corresponding relevances for
these scores, as provided by an external rater. Relevances are generally
obtained from human raters.
The value()
method returns a table that contains the NDCG values for all
levels K that were provided at initialization time. Alternatively, the NDCG at
a specific level k can be obtained by calling value(k)
. Note that the level
k
should be an element of the table K
specified at initialization time.
Please note that the number of outputs and relevances C should always be at least as high as the highest NDCG level k that the meter is computing.
Log
classes act as tables indexed by string keys. Allowed keys must be
provided at construction. A special key __status__
can be also set the
convenience method log:status()
to record basic messages.
Viewers closures can be attached to a Log
, and called at different events:
onSet(log, key, value)
: when setting a key to the Log
with log:set{}
.onGet(log, key)
: when querying a key with log:get()
.onFlush(log)
: when flushing out the stored data of the Log
with log:flush()
.onClose(log)
: when closing a Log
with log:close()
.Typical viewer closures are text
or json
, which allow to write to disk
or to the console a subset of the keys stored by the Log
, in a particular
format. The special viewer closure status
is made to be called on set()
events, and will print out only status records.
A typical use case would be the following:
tnt = require 'torchnet'
-- require the viewers we want
logtext = require 'torchnet.log.view.text'
logstatus = require 'torchnet.log.view.status'
log = tnt.Log{
keys = {"loss", "accuracy"},
onFlush = {
-- write out all keys in "log" file
logtext{filename='log.txt', keys={"loss", "accuracy"}, format={"%10.5f", "%3.2f"}},
-- write out loss in a standalone file
logtext{filename='loss.txt', keys={"loss"}},
-- print on screen too
logtext{keys={"loss", "accuracy"}},
},
onSet = {
-- add status to log
logstatus{filename='log.txt'},
-- print status to screen
logstatus{},
}
}
-- set values
log:set{
loss = 0.1,
accuracy = 97
}
-- write some info
log:status("hello world")
-- flush out log
log:flush()
#### tnt.Log(self, keys[, onClose][, onFlush][, onGet][, onSet])
```
{
self = tnt.Log --
keys = table --
[onClose = table] --
[onFlush = table] --
[onGet = table] --
[onSet = table] --
}
```
Creates a new Log
with allowed keys (strings) keys
. Specifiy event
closures with table of functions onClose
, onFlush
, onGet
and onSet
,
which will be called when close()
, flush()
, get()
, and set{}
methods will be called, respectively.
({
self = tnt.Log --
[message = string] --
[time = boolean] -- [default=true]
})
Record a status message, with corresponding (optional) time of the event.
(
self = tnt.Log --
keys = table --
)
Set a number of keys (a subset of the keys provided at construction) to their corresponding values.
Closures attached to the onSet(log, key, value)
event will be called.
({
self = tnt.Log --
key = string --
})
Get the value of a given key.
Closures attached to the onGet(log, key)
event will be called.
({
self = tnt.Log --
})
Flush (empty) the log data.
Closures attached to the onFlush(log)
event will be called.
({
self = tnt.Log --
})
Close the log.
Closures attached to the onClose(log)
event will be called.
({
self = tnt.Log --
event = string --
closures = table --
})
Attach a set of functions (provided in a table) to a given event.