Rhine is a library for synchronous and asynchronous Functional Reactive Programming (FRP). It separates the aspects of clocking, scheduling and resampling from each other, and ensures clock-safety on the type level.
Complex reactive programs often process data at different rates. For example, games, GUIs and media applications may output audio and video signals, or receive user input at unpredictable times. Coordinating these different rates is a hard problem in general. If not enough care is taken, buffer underruns and overflows, space and time leaks, accidental synchronisation of independent sub-systems, and concurrency issues, such as deadlocks, may all occur.
Rhine tackles these problems by annotating the signal processing components with clocks, which hold the information when data will be input, processed and output. Different components of the signal network will become active at different times, or work at different rates. If components running under different clocks need to communicate, it has to be decided when each component becomes active ("scheduling"), and how data is transferred between the different rates ("resampling"). Rhine separates all these aspects from each other, and from the individual signal processing of each subsystem. It offers a flexible API to all of them and implements several reusable standard solutions. In the places where these aspects need to intertwine, typing constraints on clocks come into effect, enforcing clock safety.
A typical example,
which can be run as
cd rhine-examples/ && cabal run Demonstration,
-- | Create a simple message containing the time stamp since initialisation, -- for each tick of the clock. -- Since 'createMessage' works for arbitrary clocks (and doesn't need further input data), -- it is a 'Behaviour'. -- @[email protected] is the 'TimeDomain' of any clock used to sample, -- and it needs to be constrained in order for time differences -- to have a 'Show' instance. createMessage :: (Monad m, Show (Diff time)) => String -> Behaviour m time String createMessage str = timeInfoOf sinceInit >-> arr show >-> arr (("Clock " ++ str ++ " has ticked at: ") ++) -- | Output a message /every second/ (= every 1000 milliseconds). -- Let us assume we want to assure that 'printEverySecond' -- is only called every second, -- then we constrain its type signature with the clock @Millisecond [email protected] printEverySecond :: Show a => ClSF IO (Millisecond 1000) a () printEverySecond = arrMCl print -- | Specialise 'createMessage' to a specific clock. ms500 :: ClSF IO (Millisecond 500) () String ms500 = createMessage "500 MS" ms1200 :: ClSF IO (Millisecond 1200) () String ms1200 = createMessage "1200 MS" -- | Create messages every 500 ms and every 1200 ms, -- collecting all of them in a list, -- which is output every second. main :: IO () main = flow $ ms500 @@ waitClock -- a Rhine = a ClSF in the context of a Clock ||@ scheduleMillisecond @|| -- compose 2 Rhines in parallel ms1200 @@ waitClock -- a Rhine >-- collect -- buffer results from both Rhines into a list [email protected] concurrently -- the next Rhine executes in its own thread --> printEverySecond @@ waitClock -- the final Rhine -- | Uncomment the following for a type error (the clocks don't match): -- typeError = ms500 >>> printEverySecond
rhine/: The main library, which is also mirrored on hackage.
rhine-gloss/: A wrapper library to gloss, a functional OpenGL library.
rhine-examples/: Different examples as a starting point to learn Rhine.
The best way to learn about Rhine is currently the article Rhine: FRP with Type-Level Clocks.
For a quick reference of the most important concepts, see the cheatsheet.
arrMCl readLn, behave erratically?
tagS >>> arr read :: ClSF IO StdinClock () Int
Yes, for instance you could implement a distance-dependent collision detector.
Several strategies exist and it depends on your use case.
FixedStep clocks, it won't matter since the execution of the program isn't tied to a realtime clock.
ClSFs running on
UTCTime clocks, you can execute the slow code in a separate thread and coordinate merging the results back into the signal network.
Contributing.md for details.
help needed, in case you're looking for an easy way to get started.
good first issue. If you have questions, don't hesitate to ask on Github.
react-hs, compiles with