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Short Project SP07: Comparison of Hashing Implementations

  • Comparison of one or more Hashing Algorithms from - Double Hashing, Robin Hood Hashing, Hopscotch Hashing, Cuckoo Hashing with Java's inbuilt HashMap/ HastSet over millions of add(), contains() and remove() operations.
  • Finding distinct elements from a large array of randomly generated integers using the above Hashing Implementation(s).

Author

Date

  • October 21, 2018

Problems:

A. Team Task:

Problem 1.

a. Implement one or more hashing algorithms from the following: Double hashing / Robin Hood / Hopscotch / Cuckoo Hashing.

Compare its/their performance with Java's HashMap/HashSet on millions of operations: add, contains, and remove.

Solution:

  1. Double Hashing
  2. Robin Hood Hashing
  3. Cuckoo Hashing
  4. HashingDriver1.java
Sample Run: 
$ javac rsn170330/*.java

$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t03.txt 0
HashSet result: 721
HashSet size: 499
Time: 16 msec.
Memory: 3 MB / 117 MB.

$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t03.txt 1
Double Hashing result: 721
Double Hashing size: 499
Time: 17 msec.
Memory: 3 MB / 117 MB.

$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t03.txt 2
Robin Hood result: 721
Robin Hood size: 499
Time: 18 msec.
Memory: 3 MB / 117 MB.

$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t03.txt 3
Cuckoo Hashing result: 721
Cuckoo Hashing size: 499
Time: 15 msec.
Memory: 3 MB / 117 MB.
For verbose you can use:
$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t06.txt 0 true > sp07-t06-verbose.txt
$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver1 rsn170330/sp07-test/lp2-t06.txt 3 true > sp07-t06-cuckoo.txt
Comparison Table: 
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Test        |  No of   |     Java HashSet    |    Double Hashing   |  Robin Hood Hashing |    Cuckoo Hashing   |
| Files       |  Operta- |---------------------|---------------------|---------------------|---------------------|
|             |  tions   |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t01.txt |       50 |     6 |     1 / 117 |     5 |     1 / 117 |     5 |     1 / 117 |     5 |     1 / 117 |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t02.txt |      201 |    10 |     1 / 117 |     9 |     1 / 117 |    10 |     1 / 117 |     9 |     1 / 117 |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t03.txt |     1001 |    18 |     3 / 117 |    16 |     3 / 117 |    15 |     3 / 117 |    16 |     3 / 117 |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t04.txt |    50001 |   128 |    23 / 117 |   124 |    24 / 117 |   130 |    25 / 117 |   131 |    29 / 117 |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t05.txt |   100000 |   183 |    43 / 147 |   176 |    45 / 147 |   188 |    43 / 147 |   216 |    54 / 147 |
|-------------|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
| lp2-t06.txt |  1000000 |  1168 |    94 / 578 |  1216 |    94 / 581 |  1194 |    60 / 572 |  1744 |   187 / 439 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

NOTE:

  • Time is in millisconds and Memory is in MBs
  • Existing Processor: Intel® Core™ i5-8250U CPU @ 1.60GHz × 8. Memory: 7.5 GiB

Problem 1:

b. Generate an array of random integers, and calculate how many distinct numbers it has:

static<T> int distinctElements(T[ ] arr) { ... } 

Compare running times of HashSet and your hashing implementation, for large n.

Solution:

  1. Double Hashing
  2. Robin Hood Hashing
  3. Cuckoo Hashing
  4. HashingDriver2.java
  5. sp07b-script-results.txt
Sample Run:
$ javac rsn170330/*.java

$ java rsn170330.HashingDriver2 1000000 2
Choice: 2
Time: 322 msec.
Memory: 41 MB / 208 MB.
Comparison Table: 
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|  Array   |     Java HashSet    |    Double Hashing   |  Robin Hood Hashing |    Cuckoo Hashing   |
|   Size   |---------------------|---------------------|---------------------|---------------------|
|          |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |  Time |   Memory    |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      1 M |   379 |   153 / 242 |   448 |   166 / 353 |   317 |    41 / 208 |  1125 |   178 / 709 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      2 M |  1004 |   194 / 454 |  1057 |   224 / 415 |   876 |   166 / 234 |  2646 |  587 / 1258 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      3 M |  1644 |   269 / 438 |  1684 |   226 / 515 |  1479 |   177 / 319 |  3390 |  814 / 1210 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      4 M |  2056 |  353 / 1963 |  2177 |  578 / 1963 |  1871 |  334 / 1963 |  4817 |  637 / 1820 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      5 M |  2581 |  483 / 1963 |  2640 |  649 / 1963 |  2532 |  353 / 1963 |  5638 | 1349 / 1820 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|      8 M |  4402 |  796 / 1963 |  4532 | 1180 / 1820 |  3900 |  667 / 1963 | 17280 | 1229 / 1820 |
|----------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|-------|-------------|
|     10 M |  6232 | 1043 / 2944 |  5944 | 1066 / 2518 |  5429 |  960 / 2944 | 15038 | 1491 / 2731 |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

NOTE:

  • In HashingDriver2.java kept numTrials = 10 for the above results. Increasing numTrials, the precision of the results could be improved but it would take more resources as Time and Memory.

COMMENTS:

1. Implementations:
  • If you are new to the hashing, would suggest to implement Double Hashing then Robin Hood. And then not to try Cuckoo.
  • Cuckoo Hashing: Yes, Cuckoo Hashing is difficult among three that I've implemented. It's add() method is a bit tricky and we might need to come up with really good hash functions as we keep on increasing the k. Just barely managed to get correct results for 5 out of 6 test cases (files in sp07-test). For the last file lp2-t06.txt, I've managed to come as close as possible to the expected results which can be checked in the sp07-verbose/ directory.
  • I've not implemented Hopscotch Hashing, which one could always try and share help if needed.
  • Double Hashing: It is good for understanding the 'hashing' concepts, like probing sequence, and builds our logic. It is somewhat between easy to moderate in difficulty level.
  • Robin Hood Hashing: Robin hood hashing is quite popular and it is not that difficult to implement. I've kept the hash functions simple as compared to double hashing and cuckoo hashing which might be the reason for its quick computations.
2. Performances:
  • I've started building hash tables with initial capacity = 1024, (unlike Java HashMap/ HashSet capacity = 16). This can be attributed to the fact that these implementations 'look' efficient as compared to Java HashSet.
  • I've tested these implementations only for n <= 10 Million. You can always compare the performances for larger n.
  • With the above results I can say performance wise: Cuckoo < Java HashSet = Double Hashing = Robin Hood. But, would prefer using Java HashSet/ HashMap implementations even if these implementations perform better.

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