Dj Database Url

Use Database URLs in your Django Application.

DJ-Database-URL

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This simple Django utility allows you to utilize the 12factor inspired DATABASE_URL environment variable to configure your Django application.

The dj_database_url.config method returns a Django database connection dictionary, populated with all the data specified in your URL. There is also a conn_max_age argument to easily enable Django's connection pool.

If you'd rather not use an environment variable, you can pass a URL in directly instead to dj_database_url.parse.

Supported Databases

Support currently exists for PostgreSQL, PostGIS, MySQL, MySQL (GIS), Oracle, Oracle (GIS), Redshift, CockroachDB, Timescale, Timescale (GIS) and SQLite.

Installation

Installation is simple:

$ pip install dj-database-url

Usage

  1. If DATABASES is already defined:
  • Configure your database in settings.py from DATABASE_URL:

    import dj_database_url
    
    DATABASES['default'] = dj_database_url.config(
        conn_max_age=600,
        conn_health_checks=True,
    )
    
  • Provide a default:

    DATABASES['default'] = dj_database_url.config(
        default='postgres://...',
        conn_max_age=600,
        conn_health_checks=True,
    )
    
  • Parse an arbitrary Database URL:

    DATABASES['default'] = dj_database_url.parse(
        'postgres://...',
        conn_max_age=600,
        conn_health_checks=True,
    )
    
  1. If DATABASES is not defined:
  • Configure your database in settings.py from DATABASE_URL:

    import dj_database_url
    
    DATABASES = {
        'default': dj_database_url.config(
            conn_max_age=600,
            conn_health_checks=True,
        ),
    }
    
  • You can provide a default, used if the DATABASE_URL setting is not defined:

    DATABASES = {
        'default': dj_database_url.config(
            default='postgres://...',
            conn_max_age=600,
            conn_health_checks=True,
        )
    }
    
  • Parse an arbitrary Database URL:

    DATABASES = {
        'default': dj_database_url.parse(
            'postgres://...',
            conn_max_age=600,
            conn_health_checks=True,
        )
    }
    

conn_max_age sets the CONN_MAX_AGE setting, which tells Django to persist database connections between requests, up to the given lifetime in seconds. If you do not provide a value, it will follow Djangos default of 0. Setting it is recommended for performance.

conn_health_checks sets the CONN_HEALTH_CHECKS setting (new in Django 4.1), which tells Django to check a persisted connection still works at the start of each request. If you do not provide a value, it will follow Djangos default of False. Enabling it is recommended if you set a non-zero conn_max_age.

Strings passed to dj_database_url must be valid URLs; in particular, special characters must be url-encoded. The following url will raise a ValueError:

postgres://user:p#[email protected]/foobar

and should instead be passed as:

postgres://user:p%[email protected]/foobar

TEST settings can be configured using the test_options attribute:

DATABASES['default'] = dj_database_url.config(default='postgres://...', test_options={'NAME': 'mytestdatabase'})

URL schema

Engine Django Backend URL
PostgreSQL django.db.backends.postgresql [1] postgres://USER:[email protected]ST:PORT/NAME [2]
PostGIS django.contrib.gis.db.backends.postgis postgis://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
MSSQL sql_server.pyodbc mssql://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
MSSQL [5] mssql mssqlms://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
MySQL django.db.backends.mysql mysql://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME [2]
MySQL (GIS) django.contrib.gis.db.backends.mysql mysqlgis://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
SQLite django.db.backends.sqlite3 sqlite:///PATH [3]
SpatiaLite django.contrib.gis.db.backends.spatialite spatialite:///PATH [3]
Oracle django.db.backends.oracle oracle://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME [4]
Oracle (GIS) django.contrib.gis.db.backends.oracle oraclegis://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
Redshift django_redshift_backend redshift://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
CockroachDB django_cockroachdb cockroach://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
Timescale [6] timescale.db.backends.postgresql timescale://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
Timescale (GIS) [6] timescale.db.backend.postgis timescalegis://USER:[email protected]:PORT/NAME
[1] The django.db.backends.postgresql backend is named django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2 in older releases. For backwards compatibility, the old name still works in newer versions. (The new name does not work in older versions).
[2] (1, 2) With PostgreSQL or CloudSQL, you can also use unix domain socket paths with percent encoding: postgres://%2Fvar%2Flib%2Fpostgresql/dbname mysql://[email protected]%2fcloudsql%2fproject%3alocation%3ainstance/dbname
[3] (1, 2) SQLite connects to file based databases. The same URL format is used, omitting the hostname, and using the "file" portion as the filename of the database. This has the effect of four slashes being present for an absolute file path: sqlite:////full/path/to/your/database/file.sqlite.
[4] Note that when connecting to Oracle the URL isn't in the form you may know from using other Oracle tools (like SQLPlus) i.e. user and password are separated by : not by /. Also you can omit HOST and PORT and provide a full DSN string or TNS name in NAME part.
[5] Microsoft official mssql-django adapter.
[6] (1, 2) Using the django-timescaledb Package which must be installed.

Contributing

We welcome contributions to this project. Projects can take two forms:

  1. Raising issues or helping others through the github issue tracker.
  2. Contributing code.

Raising Issues or helping others:

When submitting an issue or helping other remember you are talking to humans who have feelings, jobs and lives of their own. Be nice, be kind, be polite. Remember english may not be someone first language, if you do not understand or something is not clear be polite and re-ask/ re-word.

Contributing code:

  • Before writing code be sure to check existing PR's and issues in the tracker.
  • Write code to the pylint spec.
  • Large or wide sweeping changes will take longer, and may face more scrutiny than smaller confined changes.
  • Code should be pass black and flake8 validation.