This repo is now Deprecated and only under maintenance mode. No further work will be done unless it's pretty serious (bad flaw, etc).
ASP.NET Core has superceeded this repo with their (much better) Core-Identity solution.
SimpleAuthentication is a ASP.NET library that makes it really easy and simple for developers to add Social Authentication to an ASP.NET application. It currently targets .NET 4.x framework, not the new .NET Core framework.
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Social Authentication are login buttons that use popular social websites (like Facebook or Google) as the way to login to your own website. These social websites Facebook/Google/etc are referred to as Social Authentication Providers (aka. AP's).
A few reasons:
Simple Authentication doesn't want to tie you into any particular database, data access layer or forcing / maintaining passwords. In essence, we've tried to pass this security concern onto other systems. Once you've received some authenticated user information, you decide what you want to do with. On the other hand, ASP.NET Identity/Membership is a full end-to-end stack for user credentials. It's tied to Sql Server and you're tied to implementing all the interface contracts. But most importantly, passwords are still stored in your database if forms authentication was used. It's a one-big-hammer approach.
Read this wiki page for an elaborate discussion on the differences (pro's/con's) of Simple Authentication vs ASP.NET.
Have an OAuth 1.0a or OAuth 2.0 Authentication Provider? It's really easy to create your own providers, extending what's already out of the box. These AP's are also available:
Take advantage of the Glimpse plugin so you can see what magic is happening under the hood if you need to debug a problem or just want to see what happens :)