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Awesome Open Source

postgresql_exporter

A Prometheus exporter for some postgresql metrics.

Getting Started

You can add as many database connections as you like to the config.yml file, and run it with:

./postgresql_exporter -config=my/config.yml

Then you can add hostname:9111 to the prometheus scrapes config:

- job_name: 'postgresql'
  static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:9111']

And voilá, metrics should be there and you should be able to query, graph and alert on them.

Setting up a restricted monitoring user

By default some stat views like pg_stat_statements and pg_stat_activity doesn't allow viewing queries run by other users, unless you are a database superuser. Since you probably don't want monitoring to run as a superuser, you can setup a separate monitoring user like this:

CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS pg_stat_statements;
CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS pgstattuple;

CREATE SCHEMA monitoring;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pgstattuple(IN relname text,
    OUT table_len BIGINT,
    OUT tuple_count BIGINT,
    OUT tuple_len BIGINT,
    OUT tuple_percent FLOAT8,
    OUT dead_tuple_count BIGINT,
    OUT dead_tuple_len BIGINT,
    OUT dead_tuple_percent FLOAT8,
    OUT free_space BIGINT,
    OUT free_percent FLOAT8) AS $$
  SELECT
    table_len,
    tuple_count,
    tuple_len,
    tuple_percent,
    dead_tuple_count,
    dead_tuple_len,
    dead_tuple_percent,
    free_space,
    free_percent
  FROM public.pgstattuple(relname)
$$ LANGUAGE SQL VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pgstattuple_approx(IN relname text,
    OUT table_len            BIGINT,
    OUT scanned_percent 	 FLOAT8,
    OUT approx_tuple_count 	 BIGINT,
    OUT approx_tuple_len 	 BIGINT,
    OUT approx_tuple_percent FLOAT8,
    OUT dead_tuple_count 	 BIGINT,
    OUT dead_tuple_len 	     BIGINT,
    OUT dead_tuple_percent 	 FLOAT8,
    OUT approx_free_space 	 BIGINT,
    OUT approx_free_percent  FLOAT8) AS $$
  SELECT
    table_len,
    scanned_percent,
    approx_tuple_count,
    approx_tuple_len,
    approx_tuple_percent,
    dead_tuple_count,
    dead_tuple_len,
    dead_tuple_percent,
    approx_free_space,
    approx_free_percent
  FROM public.pgstattuple_approx(relname)
$$ LANGUAGE SQL VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE ROLE monitoring WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'mypassword' 
  CONNECTION LIMIT 5 IN ROLE pg_monitor;
ALTER ROLE monitoring SET search_path = monitoring, pg_catalog, public;

GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE {{database_name}} TO monitoring;
GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA monitoring TO monitoring;
GRANT EXECUTE ON ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA monitoring TO monitoring;

Note that these statements must be run as a superuser (to create the SECURITY DEFINER function), but from here onwards you can use the monitoring user instead. The exporter will automatically use the helper methods if they exist in the monitoring schema, otherwise data will be fetched directly.

The default role pg_monitor only has in PostgreSQL 10 or later (See more details here). If you're running Postgres 9.6 or lower you need to create some other helper methods in the monitoring schema:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pg_stat_activity() RETURNS SETOF pg_stat_activity AS $$
  SELECT * FROM pg_catalog.pg_stat_activity;
$$ LANGUAGE sql VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE VIEW monitoring.pg_stat_activity AS 
  SELECT * FROM monitoring.pg_stat_activity();

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pg_stat_statements() RETURNS SETOF pg_stat_statements AS $$
  SELECT * FROM public.pg_stat_statements;
$$ LANGUAGE sql VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE VIEW monitoring.pg_stat_statements AS 
  SELECT * FROM monitoring.pg_stat_statements();

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pg_stat_replication() RETURNS SETOF pg_stat_replication AS $$
  SELECT * FROM pg_catalog.pg_stat_replication;
$$ LANGUAGE sql VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE VIEW monitoring.pg_stat_replication AS 
  SELECT * FROM monitoring.pg_stat_replication();

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION monitoring.pg_stat_progress_vacuum() RETURNS SETOF pg_stat_progress_vacuum AS $$
  SELECT * FROM pg_catalog.pg_stat_progress_vacuum;
$$ LANGUAGE sql VOLATILE SECURITY DEFINER;

CREATE VIEW monitoring.pg_stat_progress_vacuum AS 
  SELECT * FROM monitoring.pg_stat_progress_vacuum();

Running it within Docker

docker run -p 9111 -v /path/to/my/config.yml:/config.yml caninjas/postgresql_exporter

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