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build-and-test

The AlteRnaTive Impala Compiler.

Building

A compiler that supports C++17 and CMake are required to build the project. Additionally, this project depends on Thorin. Use the following commands to build the program:

mkdir build
cd build
cmake .. -DThorin_DIR=<path/to/thorin>
make -j

Note that path/to/thorin is usually thorin/build/share/anydsl/cmake.

Status

Artic is in alpha stage, which means that it should be able to compile any valid program. There might still be bugs lurking in, and if you find one, please report it on the issues tab, preferably with a minimal reproducing example.

Testing

Once built, Artic can be run with the following command:

bin/artic [files]

The test suite can be run using:

make test

Additionally, a coverage report can be generated when the CODE_COVERAGE CMake variable is set to ON or TRUE:

make coverage

Documentation

The documentation for the compiler internals can be found here.

Syntax

The syntax follows that of Impala, whenever possible. Some notable changes compared to the syntax of Impala are:

  • Polymorphism is now supported:
struct S[T] {
    elem: T
}
fn select[T](cond: bool, a: T, b: T) -> T {
    if cond { a } else { b }
}
fn main() -> i32 {
    S[i32] { elem = select[i32](true, 0, 1) }.elem
}
  • The type inference algorithm is now bidirectional type checking, which means that type information is propagated locally, not globally. This gives improved error messages and better support for advanced type system features, at the cost of slightly more type annotations:
let x = |i| i; // artic needs a type annotation on `i` or on `x`
x(1) // impala would see this as a constraint that `x` is a function on integers
  • The for-loop syntax has been changed in order to help Thorin's partial evaluator, by separating the generator (the function taking the body of the for loop) from the loop itself.
// The `range` function now takes a loop body and
// returns a function that performs the actual looping
fn @range(body: fn (i32) -> i32) {
    fn loop(beg: i32, end: i32) -> () {
        if beg < end {
            @body(beg);
            loop(beg + 1, end)
        }
    }
    loop
}
// ... later in the source code ...
for i in range(0, 10) {
    print(i)
}
// This is equivalent to:
range(|i| { print(i) })(0, 10)
  • Declarations can be annotated with attributes:
// This function will be exported in the generated LLVM module.
// Note that only functions of order 1 (functions that do not take
// other functions as arguments) can be exported.
#[export]
fn foo() -> i32 { 1 }
  • Modules are supported. They behave essentially like C++ namespaces, except they cannot be extended after being defined, and they are order independent:
fn bar() = A::foo();
mod A {
    fn foo() = 1;
}
  • Modules can be imported using the use keyword, optionally with another name by using as:
mod A {
    use super::C;
    fn foo() { C::baz() }
    mod B {
        fn bar() { super::foo() }
    }
}
mod C {
    use super::A::B as D;
    fn baz() { D::bar }
}
  • Tuples cannot be indexed with constant integers anymore:
let t = (1, 2);
t(1) // valid in impala, invalid in artic
// valid alternatives in artic:
let t1 = t.1;
match t { (_, t1) => ... }
let (_, t1) = t;
  • Non-refutable (always matching) patterns are allowed as function parameters:
fn foo(x: f32, (y: f32, z: f32)) -> ... { ... }
  • Identifier patterns can now have sub-patterns:
fn foo(x as (y: f32, z: f32)) { ... }
  • Functions can use the = sign instead of braces if their body is just an expression:
fn foo() -> i32 = 1;
  • Functions have their return type deducted automatically if they do not use return and are not recursive:
fn foo() = 1;
  • Structure patterns and expressions use the = sign instead of : to give values to their members (this is for consistency with the use of : for type annotations, structure types are not affected):
let p = Pair { x = 1, y = 2 };
match p {
    Pair { x = x_, y = y_ } => x_
}
  • Structure update expressions take a structure value and build a new structure with updated values for the specified fields:
let p = Pair { x = 1, y = 2 };
let q = p .{ y = 3 }; // q is a structure with x = 1, y = 3
  • Structure patterns can now have the ... symbol to indicate they do not capture everything:
fn foo(Pair { x = f, ... }) = f;
  • Structures can have default values for their fields. Fields with default values can be omitted in structure expressions:
struct S {
    x: i32 = 1,
    y: i64 = 3
}
static x = S { y = 2 }; // x is a structure with x = 1, y = 2
  • Structures can have a "tuple-like" form:
struct S(i32, i64);
struct T;
  • Tuples and "tuple-like" structures members can be accessed with the projection operator:
struct S(i32, i64);
let s = S(1, 2);
let x = s.0;
let y = s.1;
let t = (1, 2);
let z = t.0;
let w = t.1;
  • Enumeration options can use a "record-like" form:
enum E {
    A,
    B(i32),
    C {
        x: i32,
        y: i64
    }
}
  • Array patterns are now supported:
let [x, y] = [1, 2];
let simd[z, w] = simd[1, 2];
  • Type annotations can be added on every expression:
let x : i32 = (1 : i32) : i32;
  • Literals types are inferred depending on their context:
let x : u8 = 1;  // `x` types as u8
let y = 1;       // `y` types as i32 (default when no annotation is present)
let z : f32 = 1; // `z` types as f32
  • Patterns are now compiled using decision trees. This means that the generated code will be more efficient, and also that error messages for the completeness of a pattern are now more accurate (less conservative). The following case expression is now legal:
// impala would complain that this match is missing a default case
match x {
    (true, (_, true)) => 1,
    (true, (_, false)) => 2,
    (_, (1, _)) => 3,
    (_, (_, false)) => 4,
    (_, (_, true)) => 5
}
  • if let and while let expressions are supported:
if let (Option[Foo]::Some(y), 1) = x {
    foo(y)
} else {
    bar();
}
while let Option[Bar]::Some(x) = get_next() {
    process(x);
}
  • The @@ sign for call-site annotations has been replaced by @:
@@foo(1, x); // valid in impala, useless (counted as two annotations) with artic
@foo(1, x); // valid in artic, invalid in impala
  • Address spaces are now introduced with the keyword addrspace:
// Equivalent to &[1]i32 in impala
fn foo(p: &addrspace(1)i32) = *p;
  • Constant array expressions use Rust's syntax instead of the old Impala syntax:
[0; 4] // Equivalent to [0, 0, 0, 0]

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